(ORDO NEWS) — The Internet is developing rapidly. A few years ago, access to it required a walk in an Internet cafe or the use of special cards with a password. Now the Internet is an essential part of our life. High-speed internet these days is not a luxury, but a necessity. But to what value will the speed increase? Are there any laws of physics limiting this indicator?
Who is the record holder
At the moment, the fastest Internet speed is recorded in China, where optical fiber is installed, transmitting information at a speed of 10.16 Petabits / s. To understand this speed in practical application, we can give an example: a terabyte of information is downloaded in less than 0.01 seconds.
The thickness of this fiber is comparable to that of a human hair. However, such speed measurements were obtained in laboratory conditions and so far cannot be applied in the real world. The existing record holder is a cable called Marea, laid across the ocean. Its fibers can carry information of 100 Tbit / s.
How can you increase
There are several ways to increase speed. Information travels in encoded form and is represented as zeros and ones. The sequence of the numeric code is called ticks. The shorter the measure, the higher the speed. This method is called increasing the clock rate. The second method changes the physical coding of the signal with a change in the level. The third method does not change the code, but several channels are used.
Information is transmitted through cables. Copper cable severely damages data at the endpoint. Twisted-pair shielded cables improve data transmission quality while increasing material costs.
Copper wires are not capable of transferring more than 10 Gbps. They are being replaced by modern fiber optics.
Why fiber optic
It uses the principle of internal reflection, in which the signal is almost unaffected over impressive distances. Pulses from a signal point can travel along the fiber at different angles. Because of this, the signal is slightly bent.
This phenomenon is called multimode fiber dispersion and limits the clock speed. In single-mode fibers, the interior space is much narrower. A thin material greatly reduces the probability of pulse refraction and allows the signal to go only one path.
The cost of fiber optic equipment is quite high and this limits the scope of its application. From the physical side, the transmission of information is limited by the Shannon limit, so the Internet speed can only grow up to a certain limit.
Much in the Universe is limited by certain physical laws. Therefore, for example, one cannot overtake light.
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