(ORDO NEWS) — The term Anunnaki refers to a group of deities from Mesopotamian mythology, and this is what various sources say.
According to cuneiform literature, the Anunni or Anunnaki were a group of gods belonging to the Mesopotamian pantheon.
However, some pseudoscientific theories have tried to present them as extraterrestrial beings that have colonized the Earth.
What do the Sumerian-Acadian texts tell about the Anunnaki, and how was historical evidence used to build a fantasy story?
In Sumerian texts, Annunaki is a collective term for the chief gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon, or the chief deities of a city.
A possible etymology of the Sumerian term a-nun or a-nun-na indicates the meaning of “princely offspring”.
Some sources say that they were born by An, the god of heaven. The first mentions in cuneiform literature date back to about 2100 BC.
In Cylinder A Gudea, which describes the grandiose construction of the temple of the god Ningirsu, the Anunnaki contemplate with admiration the building prowess of the ruler Gudea.
Other writings, such as Enki and the World Order, describe some of their prerogatives: they determine the fate of creation, make decisions and give advice.
Certain deities such as Nanna (moon god) or Ninurta (warrior god) are mentioned in royal inscriptions and mythological texts as members of the Anunna gods.
Beginning in the Paleo-Babylonian period (circa 1894-1595 BC), the Anunnaki were a group of infernal deities called.
According to the main Mesopotamian creation story of the Enuma Elish, when the god Marduk formed the universe, he appointed 300 Anunni gods to rule the heavens and 300 more to decide the affairs of hell.
The connection between this divine group and the afterlife is already evident in the Sumerian myth of Inanna’s descent into hell.
In it, the Annunaki name the seven judges of the underworld who are charged with judging the goddess Inanna.
The Annunaki are also mentioned in rituals from the 7th century BC used to fight witches and send them to hell.
They are invoked along with the solar god of justice, Shamash, and Gilgamesh, a semi-divine hero who tried to conquer death and whose fate is closely tied to the religiosity of superhumans.
However, if the term “Annunaki” has gained relevance in popular culture, the reason must be sought in certain fantastic theories that see this concept of Mesopotamian religion as a connection with Ufology and extraterrestrial life.
Pseudo-scientific theories of Zecharia Sitchin
Although Zecharia Sitchin (1920-2010) graduated in economic history, his name is now remembered for his ufological and pseudoscientific books in which he argued for the extraterrestrial origin of human civilization.
He claimed that an extraterrestrial social organization (the Anunnaki) arrived on earth to subdue humanity. In particular, they enslaved the Sumerians and forced them to work in the gold mines.
According to Sitchin, this raw material was necessary so that alien visitors could build a huge shield of gold with which to protect their planet.
Iraq does not seem to have any deposits of the metal, and the gold used in Mesopotamia for luxury goods comes from regions such as Turkey, northern Afghanistan, and in some cases Egypt.
In addition, the precious metal is mined in placers and shallows, that is, it was found on the surface, and not as a result of mining.
This may be why Sitchin suggested that the Anunnaki forced the Sumerian slaves into the African mines.
The ideas of Zecharia Sitchin do not find any confirmation in the Sumerian cuneiform sources.
Although the pseudoscientific researcher considered himself one of the few people who could read Sumerian and Akkadian, his interpretations are based on translations and dispense with direct reference to the original text.
On the other hand, Sitchin suggests looking at Mesopotamian cultural references through the lens of the present.
Thus, literary references to the “evil wind” that destroyed the city of Ur (in accordance with the “Lament for the Destruction of Ur”), from Sitchin’s point of view, turn into the consequences of a nuclear attack.
However, from the point of view of ancient Mesopotamia, destructive winds serve as a metaphor in literary texts, and we are talking about the Shamal wind, which causes severe sandstorms.
It turns out that Sitchin interpreted the sources in his own way. Although their story can be considered as pure fantastic fiction, this does not carry much historical value, and the Anunnaki were gods in the sources and will remain gods.
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