(ORDO NEWS) — According to new experiments by American specialists, anyon particles have several characteristics that are absent in subatomic particles. So, for example, elements have fractional charge and fractional statistics.
The particles were named after physicist Frank Wilczek, the prefix “eni” (from English any) in the name means that the particles can adapt to any quantum phase when changing positions.
Only this year was it possible to prove the existence of anyons. Previously, experts divided particles into several groups: bosons and fermions. If we take photos, then they belong to the first category, while electrons – to the second. Scientists have studied the behavior of fermions and bosons while intertwining with each other.
Anyons behave as if they have a fractional charge. Moreover, they form a nontrivial phase transition. This gives rise to the so-called interaction memory.
Anyons are collective excitation of electrons. So far, scientists cannot say how these particles can have a charge lower than that of an electron. The properties of anyons are more stable than other quantum particles. Experts from Purdue University decided to show this through an experiment: they sent electrons through the interferometer’s nanostructures, which are like a maze.
The temperature of the device was lowered to ten millikelvins, and the effect of a magnetic field (9 T) was also carried out. As a result, it turned out to generate an interference picture, in which anyons were located.
Scientists’ experiments continue, physicists will soon have to use more sophisticated interferometers. The work will allow control over the location and number of quasiparticles in the interferometer.
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