(ORDO NEWS) — Some things seem so self-evident to us that we do not even suspect how many different processes are behind them. The change of seasons is a complex process, which is influenced by many factors. In some places, the seasons are not four at all, but as many as six!
The change of seasons is due to the tilt of the earth’s axis at an angle of approximately 23.4 ° with respect to the plane of the ecliptic. This plane is a large circle along which the planet rotates around the Sun.
If there were no tilt, then the duration of day and night at any point on the Earth would be the same, and the Sun would move the same way during the day in any season.
The seasons are always different in the Northern and Southern hemispheres – if summer begins in one, then winter comes in the other. This is due to the fact that more light falls on one part of the planet than on another in summer or winter. This effect changes as the Earth rotates in its orbit.
For half of the year (approximately March 20 to September 22), the Northern Hemisphere is exposed to the Sun for most of the day, and solar activity peaks around June 21. The same thing happens in the second half of the year, but in the Southern Hemisphere, where daylight reaches its maximum around December 21st.
These 2 moments are called the summer and winter solstices. In addition, the moments when the length of day and night in both hemispheres are the same are called the spring and autumn equinoxes.
What affects the change of seasons
Seasonal variations depend on the proximity of the ocean or other large bodies of water, which can moderate the effects of extreme temperatures. In addition, they can be affected by various weather conditions such as strong winds, hurricanes, wildfires, and more.
At mid-latitudes, seasons can be distinguished based on environmental data, with no fixed calendar dates. This means that in the Northern Hemisphere there are 6 periods in regions with a temperate and mild climate. During these periods, birds change their behavior, and plants bloom or wither.
1- Early Spring (February to March): Deciduous tree buds begin to swell and some migratory bird species move from winter to summer habitats.
2- Spring (mid-March to late April): buds appear on trees, leaves appear, birds begin to nest.
3- Mid-summer (early June to mid-August): The trees are completely covered with leaves and the birds rear their young.
4- Late summer (mid to late August): Leaves begin to change color, young birds mature, join adult birds and prepare for autumn migration with them.
5- Autumn (begins in mid-late September): the leaves turn brown and fall, and the birds return to their winter quarters.
6- Winter (begins in November or December): trees completely shed their leaves, and migratory birds finally settle in winter habitats.
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