US, WASHINGTON (ORDO NEWS) — The US won the race in the lunar program, leaving the USSR behind. After America experienced the shock that the Russians launched their first satellite in the world, the first to fly around and photograph the other side of the moon, launch the first man into space, the Americans had only one chance – landing on the moon.
This is where the problem started. The most amazing thing is that the Americans took the path that was most familiar to the USSR. The whole color of science was gathered in one fist. Between corporations, as is usually the case, there was no war for orders. Simply choosing the most suitable options. But in the USSR, the lunar project L1 caused a real struggle between the design bureaus Korolev and Chelomei. An interesting fact is that the USSR already had a Proton launch vehicle. He allowed to make a manned flight around the moon. But according to the recollections of participants of that time, S.P. Korolev said that he would not put the astronauts on a poisonous rocket.
Really. Proton uses heptyl as fuel. The oxidizing agent is nitric acid. Why are there many cases of poisoning of the local population in Kazakhstan, which used the first steps of the “Protons” for economic needs. Later, there was information that the “Proton” was not used due to the fact that at launch, there were very large overloads. Allegedly, the astronauts could not stand them. As far as this is true, only the designers themselves can answer.
Two cosmonauts were supposed to participate in our project. One remained in orbit, the second was to descend to the surface of our satellite. The first person to step on the moon was A.A. Leonov. Doubler appointed Yu.A. Gagarin.
The H1 rocket carrier was calculated for delivery to the lunar orbit of the Soyuz spacecraft with a manned lunar module. So what is the reason?
To begin with, space is a very expensive pleasure. Money was saved on everything. The problem with H1 was in its first stage. Four starts, four disasters. But the first thing that catches your eye is that for the testing of the first stage, a test bench was not built. All first stage engines were tested separately on the ground. Thus, the reason for her refusal was not found out.
When it became known that the Americans were about to land on the moon, the crew of A.A. Leonov (according to his memoirs) requested to send them on this flight. But such permission was not obtained. And not in vain. On February 21, 1969, six months before the start of ApOllo-11, N1 started without a crew. But at the 69th minute of the flight, the rocket exploded. The second H1 exploded on July 3, 1969 on the launch pad. The launch complex was almost completely destroyed. It became clear to everyone that on the moon we would not be the first. And so it happened.
These catastrophes were preceded by no less tragic events for the Soviet cosmonautics. From a fairly ordinary operation, due to the individual intolerance to anesthesia, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev dies. In sooner. Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin is dying. The people who took the place of the Queen were talented designers. There is no doubt about it. But Korolev had the brilliant talent of the organizer, the talent of persuasion. There were legends about its sharpness. Although he never punished anyone undeservedly. And most importantly, he was a member of the Kremlin. He could argue with anyone, regardless of ranks and position. After all, the first satellite would not fly so soon if it did not fit into a military project. And it was not just a satellite. A beacon for guiding ballistic missiles.
The moon, Korolev was interested in the fact that the construction of the lunar base will allow to keep the whole world under fire with impunity. The military then grabbed onto such a fantastic project. Korolev prudently kept silent about the fact that its value is such that it will ruin just a country. The queen needed a flight. But the military bought it.
The need for H1 was due not only to the flight to the moon. This rocket made it possible to put into orbit a station weighing more than one hundred tons. The Zvezda station was far from being conceived for peaceful purposes. Korolev simply brilliantly knew how to use the needs of the military, their desires, for their far-reaching goals. He knew where, by cunning, and where, by his strong character, to get funds, for his projects. His death derailed a lot. And the death of Gagarin completed the case. It must be admitted that there were no people left whose opinions were undoubtedly listened to in the USSR government. The opinion of the Chief Designer and the first cosmonaut of the planet were like axioms for many. All doors in the Kremlin opened before them. Their opinions could not be simply kicked. People are very significant. It can be said that with their death, the rapid development of astronautics has almost ended. Yes! There have been successes. But few people know that Korolev did not set the target for the moon. His goal is Mars. And the lunar project was an intermediate link.
After the change in KB Queen of leadership, everything flowed as in stagnant times. The new management did not receive money for the test bench. After the launch complex was restored, two more H1 launches were made. Again two disasters. Again, the failure of the first stage.
The Americans were already strolling along the moon. In general, the project was quietly closed. Mars is generally forgotten. There was an attempt to revive the project when Russia successfully tested the Energia launch vehicle. M.S. Gorbachev in 1987 even offered a joint flight in 2001 to Mars with the Americans. But we will fly to Mars in the next 40 years. There is no USSR. In space, the undisputed leaders of the United States. They no longer have anyone to compete with. Therefore, spending hundreds of billions on a flight does not make sense.
The moon was a matter of prestige, an uplift of the American spirit, which the successes of the USSR badly damaged. Now there is no such incentive. Eventually, like a tombstone, the roof of the assembly and test building on Baikonur collapsed. She buried the only copy of the Energia launch vehicle. This put an end to Russia’s grandiose plans. Now, even in scientifically popular films, it is said that the most powerful rocket launcher is Saturn and the Arian-6 under construction. But our “Energy”, its modifications were supposed to display objects weighing up to 230 tons. Saturn-5 is not capable of this. It was already built at the limit of its capabilities. What about Arian 6?
We found something to surprise the Russians. For Russian designers, longingly recalling the past, such a rocket launcher is a long gone stage.
Of all the above, it should be noted that the curtailment of the lunar program, the change of leadership in astronautics, became the beginning of the decline of Russia’s leadership in space.
Our powerful words of the world said by Tsiolkovsky have forgotten. “Whoever conquers the cosmos will rule the world.”
We, as always, did not heed this prophecy. But China is very well aware of this. Its space program is so fantastic that many do not believe that China will implement it. But in vain they do not believe. After all, remember the beginning of the nineties. Then there was an article that China was going to start manned space flights. Everyone regarded this as a joke.
There was even a joke. “A Chinese space ship crashed. Two astronauts and forty-four stokers were killed. ”Therefore, the project of China on landing on the moon and the construction of a permanent base in 2021 no longer looks so fantastic.
Probably everything in Russia rests on personalities. And the fact that the Soviet cosmonaut did not set foot on the moon is a reflection of our reality. It will not be easy for us to regain lost ground. It is more fully possible that we will never regain our leadership in space.
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