(ORDO NEWS) — The design of the first high-altitude spacesuits, creating an environment around a person with excess pressure in relation to the surrounding atmosphere, began in the 1930s.
Then they were invented for human flights on stratospheric balloons (high-altitude balloons). Now there are only three “ateliers” where spacesuits are made. They are located in Russia, the USA and China.
The Orlan-MK spacesuit is manufactured by OAO NPP Zvezda named after academician G.I. Severin “(Moscow region). This is the fifth modification of Russian spacesuits, it is equipped with a built-in computerized system. Used on the ISS.
1. The helmet has a gold-plated light filter to protect from sunlight. Inside the helmet there is a built-in “Valsalva” – a device for blowing out the ears in case of pressure changes in the suit (looks like a small pad with two bumps, which, if pressed against them, pinch the nose).
2. Sleeves and legs are removable and can be adjusted in length. Inside the outer part of the suit there is a cuirass (rigid metal case).
3. Gloves are made according to individual measurements and have heat-insulating lining so that your hands do not freeze.
4. Electrofal – a wire through which electricity is supplied to the spacesuit when the astronaut is still on board.
5. Electronic control unit. The inscriptions on the block are applied in a mirror image so that the astronaut can read them with the help of mirrors worn on the sleeves 6.
7. Button to enter the menu of the control unit and turn off the alarm.
8. Backpack of the life support system. Contains primary and secondary oxygen supply systems and a communications block.
9. LEDs. Notify the astronaut in emergency situations (in case of leakage, problems with ventilation, oxygen, etc.).
10. Fastening the cable covering the spacesuit hatch on the back. Through this hatch, the astronaut enters the spacesuit.
Weight – 114 kg, a constant pressure of 0.4 atmospheres is maintained inside the spacesuit.
The operating time of the life support system of a spacesuit in one cycle (from putting on to taking off) is 10 hours (of which 7 hours are assigned to work in open space, the rest of the time is spent in the compartment before going into space and after returning).
The outer shell of the spacesuit is a phenylon fabric capable of withstanding significant static and dynamic loads and a multilayer screen-vacuum heat protection consisting of aluminum foil and mineral fibers.
The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) spacewalk suit is manufactured by ILC Dover, and life support systems are supplied by Hamilton Standard. The first version of the EMU was used from 1979 to 2002; its modernized version is currently in operation. The cost of one spacesuit is $ 12 million.
1. The helmet has a gold-plated light filter to protect from sunlight. The helmet is connected by a tube to a 0.95 liter container of water.
2. LEDs – necessary for working in shady areas.
3. Control and monitoring unit, including temperature, oxygen and communication regulators. The inscriptions on the block are mirrored so that the astronaut can read them with the help of mirrors sewn into the sleeves.
4. Life support system backpack containing the main and spare oxygen supply systems and a communications unit.
5. Oxygen supply system. Along with the main one, there is an emergency one, the reserve of which is enough for 30 minutes.
6. Heated gloves. They allow you to maintain the sensitivity of the fingers due to the rubberized elements.
8. Safety carabiner.
Weight – 178 kg, a constant pressure of 0.3 atmospheres is maintained inside the spacesuit.
Working time in open space – up to 7 hours.
The suit consists of 14 layers (including nylon, neoprene, synthetic polyester fiber and thermoplastic) and is able to withstand temperature drops from –184 to +149 degrees Celsius.
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