(ORDO NEWS) — We often hear the word DNA, but not much is said about RNA. What is it and what role does this acid play in the human body?
RNA (ribonucleic acid), like DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), is a molecule that is assembled from a chain of blocks called nucleotides.
Each nucleotide has one chemical letter, that is, a “base”: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), uracil (U).
Also DNA is usually longer than RNA. The shortest RNAs are microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, the longest is a copy of the titin gene.
What is the function of RNA in the body? It carries biological information, while DNA stores information in the human genome (that is, in the so-called instructions for creating an organism).
In addition, RNA performs various functions that affect how genes are read.
Both forms of acid – DNA and RNA – differ in a similar structure. They are made up of ribose, phosphate and sugar.
But the sugars in the backbone of DNA lack a hydroxyl group (hydrogen + oxygen), and this converts ribose to deoxyribose.
Also DNA is a double helix whereas RNA is generally a single stranded molecule. In addition, RNA is unstable, but it is precisely because of this that the genetic instructions have a temporary effect and can change.
If this did not happen, then proteins in the body could not be formed (this process is called gene expression), and glucose would turn into fat or glycogen.
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