What amazed the world Chinese scientists in 2023

(ORDO NEWS) — Chinese scientists are creating new materials that will soon revolutionize industries from the automotive industry to medicine.

For example, biomaterials grown in Chinese laboratories will help with blindness, Peyronie’s disease and even heart attacks.

A group of Chinese scientists have developed a new type of steel – superstrong and tensile. According to the developers, a fingernail-sized piece of steel can support the weight of a 2-ton car without breaking, while the ductile metal can also be stretched by 25%.

A team from Northeastern University in Shenyang, the Shenyang National Materials Science Laboratory, and the Jiangyin Xingcheng Special Metallurgical Plant worked on the invention.

Heavy Duty Steel

The creation of ultra-strong steel, which is also elastic, has been a serious challenge for scientists around the world. The fact is that strength and ductility are material properties that exclude each other.

At the same time, there is industrial demand for such a potential material: it is needed by the automotive industry, builders, and spacecraft creators. Innovative “Chinese” steel can be molded into complex shapes, with the metal absorbing excess energy on impact.

The Chinese made a breakthrough by using artificial intelligence to develop a completely new design of nanostructures. Raw alloyed material is smelted at a temperature of 650 to 800 degrees, and then it is instantly cooled in air.

Then the steel is dipped in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of almost minus 200 degrees. Well, to top it off, they heat up 300 degrees again. Due to the difference in conditions, a new crystal structure is formed.

Lead researcher Li Yunji said that “temperature swing” is actually an easier way to produce steel than is currently used to produce high-strength steels.

For example, ship shafts. The new method could reduce the cost of producing a tonne of steel by about $75 per tonne, and even reduce the harmful emissions of steel smelters into the atmosphere.

Now the Chinese team is collecting proposals from industrial companies. After all, the new development has yet to be introduced into real production.

Creation of an artificial cornea

Chinese scientists have already transplanted an artificial cornea, and will soon grow a heart “from a test tube.”

Chinese scientists are developing not only new alloys, but also biological materials. Experiments to create an artificial cornea have been successfully completed – this gives hope to millions of people diagnosed with “corneal blindness” (there are more than 5 million in China alone).

The in vitro cornea is a real alternative for those who have been waiting for a transplant for many years. There are not enough donors – no more than 3-4 thousand people a year. But the implant created by scientists is also inexpensive – no more than $ 3 thousand.

The cornea consists of three main layers – endothelium, stroma and epithelium. Chinese scientists used tissue engineering to grow the cornea “in vitro”. The main snag was that the endothelial cells could not regenerate, that is, be reborn.

It was possible to stimulate them by introducing a cancer gene into cells. True, the pathological activity of this dangerous gene also had to be controlled so that a tumor would not appear in the transplanted cornea.

But the stroma – a tissue that occupies 90% of the volume of the cornea – is made from recombinant type III human collagen with a high degree of purification.

When the new technology is tested in clinics, it will be possible to grow up to 200,000 artificial corneas in the laboratory every year. So far, only the first operation has taken place.

Ophthalmologists transplanted a “test-tube” cornea to a 25-year-old boy who was almost blind in his right eye. A few years ago, he suffered a serious injury, after which he began to irreversibly lose his sight.

And five days after the operation, the patient’s vision almost returned – and without consequences. True, after such an operation, one still needs to correct vision – with the help of glasses or contact lenses, says Professor Xie Huatao from the clinic at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Creation of a “bionic penis”

Experiments with artificial biomaterial are also carried out by scientists from the South China University of Technology in Guangzhou. They were able to create a penis implant from connective tissue, which journalists have already dubbed the “bionic penis”.

About half of men between the ages of 40 and 70 experience some form of erectile dysfunction. Moreover, approximately 5% of them develop Peyronie’s disease – a consequence of injuries. Such pathologies are associated with impaired function of the connective tissue – the so-called tunica albuginea.

Well, Chinese doctors managed to grow a complete analogue of connective tissue. And they tested the results of the experiment – no, not on humans, but on pigs.

“Our approach is not limited to the biomimetic design of albuginea tissues.

And soon we will be able to grow any load-bearing biological tissue in the laboratory,” says Professor Xuetao Shi from South China University of Technology.

In the future, the new tissue can be used for bladder and heart surgeries.

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