US, WASHINGTON (ORDO NEWS) — In a study recently published in the Royal Astronomical Society’s Monthly Notifications, Dr. Jade Powell and Dr. Bernhard Muller of the ARC Gravity Wave Research Center for Advanced Technology (OzGrav) simulated three supernova collapse supernovae using supercomputers from all over Australia, including the OzSTAR supercomputer at Technological Swinburne University. Simulation models, which are 39, 20, and 18 times more massive than our Sun, allowed us to take a fresh look at exploding massive stars and next-generation gravitational wave detectors.
Collapsed supernovae are the explosive deaths of massive stars at the end of their lives. They are one of the brightest objects in the universe, and are also the birthplace of black holes and neutron stars. The gravitational waves found in these supernovae help scientists better understand the astrophysics of black holes and neutron stars.
Future advanced gravitational wave detectors, designed to be more sensitive, might possibly detect a supernova – the collapse of a supernova nucleus may be the first object observed simultaneously in electromagnetic light, neutrinos and gravitational waves.
To detect the collapse of a supernova nucleus using gravitational waves, scientists need to predict what the signal of a gravitational wave will look like. They use supercomputers to simulate these space explosions in order to understand their complex physics. This allows them to predict what the detectors will see when the star explodes and its observed properties.
During the simulation of three exploding massive stars, the work of a supernova was monitored for a long time – this is important for accurate prediction of the masses of neutron stars and the observed explosion energy.
Jade Powell said: “Our models are 39, 20, and 18 times more massive than our Sun. The first model is important because it rotates very fast, and most of the previous long simulations of the collapse of a supernova nucleus do not include rotation effects. ”
The two most massive models produce strong energy explosions fueled by neutrinos, but the smallest model did not explode. Stars that do not explode emit gravitational waves with a smaller amplitude, but the frequency of their gravitational waves is in the most sensitive range of gravitational wave detectors.
“For the first time, we showed that rotation changes the relationship between the frequency of a gravitational wave and the properties of a newly forming neutron star,” Powell explains.
The fast-rotating model showed large amplitudes of gravitational waves that would allow an exploding star to be detected at a distance of almost 6.5 million light-years using the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein telescope.
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