(ORDO NEWS) — Wisdom is the degree of knowledge of the surrounding world, one of the main virtues and a complex personality trait that underlies mental health, well-being and includes cognitive, reflective, and affective components.
There are several components that are common to many proposed definitions of wisdom: prosocial behavior, including empathy and compassion; emotional regulation with a tendency to a stable positive mood; self-reflection and awareness; the ability to recognize and tolerate uncertainty and disagreement; determination. In some cases, wisdom is also considered spirituality.
Researchers have largely concluded that wisdom must be “androgynous,” meaning that the plan must avoid gender bias in both conceptualization and measurement.
However, the authors of the new work – employees of the MIRECC center in San Diego (California, USA), the departments of psychiatry, neurosciences, family medicine and public health at the University of California and psychologists from the University of Colorado – decided to study gender differences in wisdom and find out if they affect communication with prosperity.
The study included 659 people aged 27 to 103: 334 women and 325 men, over 75 percent white. The sample excluded people who live in nursing homes, need daily care, or are terminally ill. All volunteers completed the 3D Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) and the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) questionnaires.
The first contains 39 items covering the three “dimensions ” of wisdom: cognitive, affective, or compassionate/reflective.
The second consists of 24 items related to the six “components ” of wisdom: prosocial behavior (empathy and compassion), emotional regulation, self-reflection, acceptance of uncertainty and diversity of points of view, decisiveness and social mediation.
The results showed that women generally scored higher in areas related to compassion, tolerance, intuition, introspection, prosocial behavior and acceptance of different points of view, while men excelled in decisiveness and emotional regulation – the ability to respond to events in a socially acceptable way.
Way, while maintaining sufficient flexibility, that is, the ability to control their own behavior. Moreover, the overall score on the 3-D-WS wisdom scale turned out to be higher among the representatives of the so-called fair sex, although scientists did not reveal gender differences in SD-WISE.
“We found that men and women have different relative degrees of wisdom, probably due to both sociocultural and biological factors,” the researchers noted. Finally, in both sexes, wisdom correlated with mental well-being and optimism, lower levels of depression and loneliness.
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