(ORDO NEWS) — Scientists from Kyoto University presented a periodic table of elements, which, unlike the periodic table, where the electrons in the atom are taken as the basis, is based on the behavior of protons in the nucleus. A description of the new table, called by the Nucletouch authors, is provided in the journal Foundations of Chemistry.
For the theory of the shell structure of the nucleus in 1963, the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded. According to this theory, the structure of an atomic nucleus is presented in the form of nucleon shells filled with protons and neutrons by analogy with the theory of the structure of an atom whose shells are filled with electrons.
“The periodic table of Mendeleev’s elements is one of the most significant achievements in science, and in its familiar form it is based on the structure of the shell of electronic orbitals in atoms,” the words of one of the co-authors of the new table to Yoshiteru Maeno are quoted in a press release from Kyoto University. “But atoms are made up of two types of charged particles that define each element — electrons orbiting the nucleus and protons in the nucleus itself.”
More than 150 years ago, Dmitry Mendeleev discovered the periodic law, which was designed as a classical periodic table of elements. The brilliant scientist even left a place for elements that were still unknown in his time.
“In fact, in this system everything comes down to the electrons in each atom. Atoms are considered stable when the electrons completely fill their shell of the orbit around the nucleus,” Maeno continues. “The so-called noble gases are inert elements such as helium, neon and argon, rarely react with other elements. Their most stable electronic numbers are 2, 10, 18, 36 and so on. These are the so-called magic numbers.”
The authors decided that the same principle can be applied to protons that have their own “magic numbers” – 2, 8, 20, 28, and so on. They placed elements with these stable amounts of protons — helium, oxygen, and calcium — at the center of their table.
“Like the electrons of noble gases, proton-filled nuclear orbits provide stability to the nucleus,” says Kouichi Hagino, the second author of the discovery. “In our nuclear periodic table, we also see that the nuclei, as a rule, have a spherical shape in the elements, located near magic numbers, and are deformed, moving away from them.”
Researchers hope that their proposed alternative way of representing chemical elements will enable other scientists to take a fresh look at the already known chemical and physical laws and lead to new discoveries.
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