Real Mars: The Untold Mysteries of the Red Planet

(ORDO NEWS) — 2021 has riveted everyone’s attention to Mars. In February, spacecraft from the UAE, China and the United States appeared in its orbit almost simultaneously. On February 10, the Al-Amal Arab probe arrived there. On February 19, the American rover Perseverance, equipped with a helicopter, landed on the surface of Mars. The Tianwen 1 probe with the Chinese rover is still in orbit and is choosing a place for a comfortable landing. The uniqueness of these interplanetary flights and the goals of the planned research excite the imagination and memory.

Bright bursts of such a fascination with space problems were observed during the appearance of Halley’s comet in the sky in 1986 and the fall of the Shoemaker-Levy comet on the surface of Jupiter in 1994. My father Mikhail Vladimirovich Tolkachev took an active part in discussions about the composition of the nucleus of these comets, who believed that the nuclei of comets were composed of gas hydrates ( 4 ). He also believed that gas hydrates are one of the “building materials” of the Universe and play an important role not only on Earth, but also on other planets (they compose the “polar caps” of Mars, the rings of Saturn and are widely developed on the planets – gas giants and their satellites ). A series of articles ( 6, 7, 8), prepared by him jointly with Academicians A.A. Trofimuk, N.V. Chersky and Yu.F. Makogon.

Today, as in the days of previous launches of space probes and stations towards Mars, it is not only about finding an answer to the sacred question – is there life on Mars. First of all, researchers are concerned about outwardly prosaic questions about the composition of the rocks that make up Mars, the presence of water in its interior or in the zone of polar “caps”, the peculiarities of Martian weather and atmospheric dynamics.

Answers to these questions and knowledge about the geological structure, magnetic field, gravity and topography of the planet will create the necessary knowledge base for the next expeditions and the construction of Martian and orbital stations. I also believe that Phobos and Deimos, the satellites of Mars discovered by the American astronomer Asaf Hall in 1877, will not remain outside the attention of researchers.

Real Mars 1
NASA / JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona, G. Donatiello HiRISE instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance – Phobos and Deimos

The presence of two satellites on Mars was predicted by writer and publicist Jonathan Swift long before they were discovered. In the book “Gulliver’s Travels” published in 1726, he described the flying island of Laputa and the astronomers living on it, who discovered two satellites of Mars in orbits remote from the center of this planet at distances equal, respectively, to three and five diameters of Mars with an orbital period of 10 and 21.5 hours respectively. According to modern data, Phobos and Deimos are located at a distance of 1.3 and 3.4 diameters of Mars from the center of the planet, and their orbital periods are 7.6 and 30.3 hours.

In the process of research, it turned out that the real natural conditions of this cold, desert, not covered with water and forests planet are more severe and even somewhat insurmountable for pioneers without special protection:

Insolation . Mars is located one and a half times farther from the Sun than Earth, and receives about 43% of the available sunlight (589.2 watts per square meter).

Gravity . On Mars, it is two and a half times weaker than Earth. A person who weighs 100 kg on Earth will weigh 38 kg on Mars. The acceleration of gravity on Mars is 3.71 m / s² (on Earth – 9.807 m / s²).

Magnetic field . Mars does not have a pronounced dipole magnetic field. The sensors of the InSight landing platform were able to detect only traces of strong magnetization of rocks in certain areas of the planet’s surface. At the same time, the weak protection of the sporadically manifested magnetosphere, insufficient to protect living organisms from cosmic radiation, is supplemented on Mars by a shell of energetic atoms and ions of the upper ionosphere, which pushes back the streams of the solar wind. It may be necessary to create a special protection for pioneers from space radiation.

Atmospheric pressure . On Mars, it is 6 mbar – less than 1% of what we are used to and approximately equal to the Earth’s pressure at an altitude of 35 km. At the tops of the giant volcanoes of Mars, whose height reaches 25 km, it is 0.6 mbar. In the abyss of the Grand Canyon (Mariner Valley), it rises to 9 mbar, and at the bottom of the deepest depression, Hellas, to 10 mbar ( 3 ). This circumstance determines the temperature regime of phase transitions of fresh water that is exotic and unusual for the inhabitants of the Earth. It boils on the surface of Mars at temperatures from +1 to + 2 ° C, and at the bottom of the depressions at + 9 ° C.

Temperature conditions . According to the Curiosity rover, the temperature at the poles of the planet is minus 153 ° C, and at the equator up to + 35 ° C during the day and up to minus 15 ° C at night. On average, it is minus 46 ° C and differs significantly from the average earth temperature of +14 ° C.

Composition of the atmosphere . Mars has a very thin atmosphere, with a volume of only one hundredth of the earth’s, the density of which is 0.02 kg / m3. It extends to an altitude of 11.1 km and, according to Curiosity, consists of carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (2.6%), argon (1.9%) and oxygen (0.16%). In spring and summer, the level of oxygen concentration in the atmosphere increases by about a third, and in autumn it returns to its previous level. The average atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 160 times less than on the surface of the Earth. There are clouds and snow on Mars. In the winter of 1979, in the Viking-2 landing area, a thin layer of snow lay for several months ( 3). Due to the rarefied atmosphere and low gravity, global dust storms occur on Mars, which are much stronger than Earth ones.

In winter, winds blow from the equator to the pole, and in the spring, from pole to equator. Periodic temperature fluctuations of the atmosphere – daily tides (due to the difference between day and night temperatures) coincide on Mars with gravitational waves and control dust storms ( 11 ). The camera of the rover Opportunity on February 2, 2004 captured two tornadoes ( 3). The presence of ozone has been recorded on Mars. Misty haze is often recorded over canyons, low-lying plains and at the bottom of craters. Over the region of the North Pole of Mars (in the process of observations from the Hubble Space Telescope), a cyclone was recorded, the size of which was about 2000 km across. The diameter of the central “eye” of this cyclone was 300 km.

Features of the relief… In 1877, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, observing Mars with a 15-centimeter refractor telescope, discovered and sketched a grid of thin lines, which he called channels. In the course of subsequent studies, these canals were first reclassified into rivers, and then into canyons. Without repeating the classical works describing the relief of Mars, we can briefly note that the planet-forming forms of relief here are giant plains, mountain heights, volcanoes, canyons, craters, dried lakes and river beds, “polar caps”. The relief of the hemispheres of Mars differs markedly. Most of the northern hemisphere is occupied by smooth plains lying below the average level of the planet (Great Northern Plain, Arcadia, Amazonia, etc.).

The southern hemisphere is represented mainly by uplands. At the equator, there is the largest Martian Upland, Tharsis, up to 8 km high, with its mountains. Among them is the highest mountain and the highest volcano in the solar system – Mount Olympus 21,229 m high (crater diameter 85 km). The southern hemisphere is also home to the planet’s deepest plain of Hellas with a diameter of 2,300 km, the bottom of which is 8.2 km below the average level of the planet’s surface. Near the equator is the largest canyon of Mars (the Mariner Valley) with a length of 4 thousand km and a depth of 4-6 km. 2 km below the average level of the planet’s surface. Near the equator is the largest canyon of Mars (the Mariner Valley) with a length of 4 thousand km and a depth of 4-6 km. 2 km below the average level of the planet’s surface. Near the equator is the largest canyon of Mars (the Mariner Valley) with a length of 4 thousand km and a depth of 4-6 km.

Real Mars 2
NASA / JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona, G. Donatiello HiRISE instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance – Teton Canyon, which is part of the Mariner Valley

Mars is a geologically active planet, but some natural processes manifest themselves here in a completely different way than on Earth. Due to the huge difference in atmospheric pressure, gravity and temperature, glaciers are melting and moving differently here than on Earth. The water of ice melting at the moment of thermal aggression almost instantly bypasses the liquid stage and, boiling, turns into steam. The process of evaporation of boiling water moving along the slope causes landslides and even scattering of sand and dust material. Such a picture of Martian relief formation is described in the work of American scientists ( 13 ).

Tectonic and volcanic activity . Contrary to pre-existing forecasts about the inevitable attenuation of tectonic processes, Mars manifests itself as a seismically active planet. The seismograph SEIS of the American ground station InSight, which made a soft landing on Mars in November 2018 in the Elysium Highlands, over ten months recorded 174 seismic events with a magnitude of Mw = 3-4 ( 10 ). For many years I got acquainted with the comments of A. V. Galanin to the NASA images, which he posts on the Internet under the name “Thoughts on Mars” ( 3). They clearly show that Mars is a geologically active planet, most of the craters of which may end up being of endogenous (including cryogenic) origin. This is confirmed by numerous photographs, which capture the cones of young volcanoes without visible traces of falling meteorites.

The orbit of Mars has a more significant eccentricity (0.09) than the Earth. Therefore, the distance from Mars to the Sun varies from 206.7 (at perihelion) to 249 million km (at aphelion) and averages almost 228 million km (approximately 1.5 AU). This path is covered by sunlight in 760 seconds. During periods of great oppositions, interplanetary “ships” spend at least 168 days on flights from Earth to Mars (Mariner-6, 1975). A year on Mars, which orbits at a speed of 24.3 km / s, is almost twice as long as Earth’s and is 668 Martian days, the duration of which (24 hours and 39 minutes) is approximately equal to Earth’s.

The main problem in the development of Mars will be the lack of fresh water on its surface. At the same time, the water necessary for human life and activities as a drinking and sanitary-hygienic resource, in the event of its actual detection, will become a source of oxygen here.

The first hope for success in the search for water appeared in July 2018 as a result of the sounding of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) radar installed at the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbital station. A signal was received near the south pole of Mars that there was a boundary between ice and liquid water. In the course of subsequent additional studies, four subglacial lakes were discovered ( 14 ). The largest of them is 30 km wide, the smallest is 5 km wide. It is assumed that under Martian conditions, the waters of these non-frozen lakes may be salty.

Hypothetically, the sources of water on Mars can be not only open salt subglacial lakes. In addition to the probable water resources conserved in the “polar caps”, in the bowels of the planet there may be aquifers of fresh and mineral waters, deposits of fresh ice, as well as gas hydrates well-known on Earth, supercooled mineral waters and brines (cryopegs), which still belong to unsolved secrets of Mars.

I believe that they can become one of the most important complex natural resources of the Red Planet. The development of gas hydrates will make it possible to obtain not only fresh water, but also significant volumes of natural gases. Carbon dioxide will most likely prevail in the composition of gas hydrates lying on the surface, but gas hydrates and other gases, including hydrocarbon gases, will most likely be found in the bowels of the planet. This is evidenced by the methane emission recorded in the area of ​​Gale Crater.

Chlorine gas hydrates were first obtained in laboratory conditions in 1811 by the British chemist Humphry Davy. In 1823, their study was continued by Michael Faraday, who at the same time discovered a way to liquefy gases. Until the end of the 60s of the last century, gas hydrates in our country were studied mainly with the aim of preventing their emergency formation in technological schemes of gas production and transportation. Today, gas hydrates on Earth are one of the most promising types of unconventional hydrocarbon resources ( 6, 7, 8 ). The first full-time acquaintance of each of us with gas hydrates happened at school in chemistry lessons. Think of the whitish haze of chlorine gas that appears every time you open a bottle of concentrated hydrochloric acid.

The openwork structures of gas hydrate crystals, in which water molecules fit into their “framework” a molecule of “immigrant gas”, belong in chemistry to the family of clathrates (inclusion compounds). They are formed and exist in a stable form due to hydrogen bonding (van der Waals forces) at certain high pressures and low temperatures. These ice-like solid molecular compounds of gases and liquids bind 70 to 300 cubic meters of gas in one cubic meter of water. The density of hydrates of hydrocarbon gases is in the range from 0.8 to 1.8 g / cm3. Carbon dioxide hydrate, which is probably present on Mars, is formed on Earth at a pressure of one atmosphere and a temperature of minus 25 degrees C.

The most important property of gas hydrates is that they can form from stratal waters undersaturated with gas, and the fact that impermeable lithological screens are not required for their subsequent preservation. This property of hydrates played an important role during the formation of the Earth, its atmosphere, hydrosphere and hydrocarbon deposits. Today, the world resources of gas hydrates of hydrocarbon gases of our planet are at least an order of magnitude higher than the resources of traditional natural gas ( 2 ).

Gas hydrates are found today in all terrestrial environments and are certainly present in space. Hydrates can form in the atmosphere of Venus at an altitude of 50-70 km from its surface and, most likely, will be detected during a detailed study of the polar caps of Mars, Saturn’s rings and cometary nuclei. A framework of gas hydrates in the bowels of the Moon could provide the long-term vibration of its surface observed by US specialists. In any case, this assumption seems to be more acceptable than the idea of ​​a hollow moon or its metal frame. Gas hydrates have played an important role in the conservation and storage of water and gases on Mars. They are one of the sources of abundant water flows and gas interventions into the atmosphere of Mars that once existed on Mars. I suppose that in the process of future research, so far unknown features of the composition of gas hydrates will be discovered. It is possible that in this case carbon dioxide will not be their most important component.

At the end of 2020, scientists from the United States, China and Russia described the structure and properties of a new type of hydrogen hydrate, which can form at relatively low pressure and room temperature ( 16 ). A natural compound of this type, whether it is discovered on Mars, will make it possible to obtain not only water, but also an environmentally friendly source of energy during the decomposition of gas hydrates. The presence of a large accumulation of hydrogen in the region of the South Pole of Mars on an area of ​​645 sq. km was discovered by the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) gamma-ray spectrometer of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

Real Mars 3
European Space Agency (ESA) South Pole of Mars

An important difference between gas hydrates and ice is that the volume of gas during its transition to the solid state of a gas hydrate decreases by several orders of magnitude. Under certain temperature and pressure conditions, 141.5 m³ of gaseous methane occupy only 0.142 m³ in a cubic meter of methane gas hydrate. Such a dense packing of gas (a kind of “gas bomb”), under certain conditions, is fraught with serious negative consequences.

According to the calculations of Yu.F. Makogon ( 8 ), during the decomposition of methane gas hydrates in a closed volume, the pressure can jump-like up to 2-3 thousand MPa (2-3 thousand atmospheres) and lead to an explosive destruction of the gas hydrate deposit. Traces of such natural gas hydrate explosions – cryovolcanoes with the formation of rounded giant funnels – have been repeatedly observed in Yamal ( 1, 9 ). Cryovolcanoes are known on Pluto, the dwarf planet Ceres, Neptune’s moon Triton and Saturn’s moon Enceladus. It can reasonably be expected that some of the annular structures of Mars, which are historically considered traces of its meteorite bombardment, will eventually turn out to be manifestations of explosive cryolithogenesis.

In connection with the high probability of the presence of gas hydrates on Mars and its satellites, I would like to repeat once again the warning of M.V. Tolkachev, expressed about the possible negative consequences of the impact on gas hydrates of rocket engines, laser ranging or drilling. The options for landing rovers on the surface of lakes frozen in craters, which may turn out to be a “minefield”, are also dangerous.

When the temperature rises or the pressure drops, gas hydrates “liquefy”, decomposing into gas and water. By absorbing heat, they generate “cold waves” that cool the host rocks and aquifers. To obtain the water necessary for the pioneers of Mars, three known methods of decomposition of gas hydrates can be used (pressure reduction, thermal action, or the use of inhibitors).

Martian cryopegs

During the development of copper-nickel ores in the Norilsk region, oil and gas deposits in Western and Eastern Siberia, diamond pipes in Yakutia, gold deposits and other types of mineral raw materials in the Far East, it has long been established that in the bowels and on the surface at 0 ° C only freezes freely flowing, gravitational, capillary and weakly bound fresh water, and brines of calcium chloride and other composition with a salinity of more than 300 g / l remain in a liquid state at temperatures below minus 55 ° С. Under these conditions, it seems obvious that ordinary fresh water cannot freely accumulate on the surface of the Red Planet, let alone flow somewhere along the channels of the Martian rivers. At the same time, the fogs that are observed in the Martian canyons and in the depressions of the plains may indicate.

Martian natural supercooled mineral waters represent a potentially valuable natural resource for the production of fresh water and oxygen. The salts extracted in this case will most likely find use in the Martian chemical industry in the future.

In conditions of an acute shortage of fresh water, it will not be superfluous to remember that a significant part of it is contained in rocks and minerals. Including, both in the form of free capillary and gravitational water, and in a chemically bound state in the form of crystallization and constitutional liquid. Crystallization water is released during the destruction of the crystal lattice of minerals (soda, gypsum, etc.) at a temperature of 200-300 degrees Celsius. Constitutional water is released from minerals containing a hydroxyl group (talc, brucite, chlorite, phlogopite and muscovite micas, etc.) when they are heated above 300 degrees. Infrared images from Mars Odyssey show that the surface of Mars in the southern latitudes of the planet’s northern hemisphere is rich in olivine. It is known that one ton of this widespread rock-forming mineral contains 100 grams of water. Much more water than olivine is found in the minerals ringwoodite and wadsleyite (15 ). It is assumed that in the transition zone of the Earth’s mantle there is a huge reservoir of water equal to several volumes of the World Ocean. The conclusions about the presence of significant volumes of water in the depths of the Earth’s mantle were confirmed in Canada when studying lava flows of komatiites – rocks with an age of 2.7 billion years, which contain 0.6% of water ( 15 ).

Surprisingly, until now, when considering the features of the geological structure and relief of Mars, the information about gas hydrates and “liquid permafrost”, supercooled highly mineralized underground waters, which have long been known on Earth, is not fully used.

On the Internet and in the literature, there are several considerations about a hypothetically possible change in the planet’s climate and “improving” the density of its atmosphere to a degree suitable for terrestrial plants and animals (terraforming) due to the release of greenhouse gases stored in the “polar caps” into the atmosphere. According to astronomers Bruce Yakovsky and Christopher Edwards, published in the journal Nature Astronomy ( 12), the available carbon dioxide resources on Mars will not be enough to start such a process. In their opinion, the extraction of gas from the “polar caps”, rigollite and underground reservoirs will increase the pressure to a maximum of 50 mbar. Taking into account the probable “escape” of the atmosphere, the final atmospheric pressure will not be higher than 20 mbar, and the temperature will increase by no more than 10K (for the stable existence of liquid water, warming by 60K is necessary).

Phobos and Deimos

Phobos rotates three times faster than Mars (makes one revolution in 7 hours 39 minutes 14 seconds) and, as a result, rises three times in the Martian sky in the west and sets in the east. The dimensions of Phobos are 26.6 × 22.2 × 18.6 km, its surface is dotted with craters.The largest of them, Stickney, has a diameter of about 8 km. Phobos always faces Mars with the same side. Its orbit is within the “Roche limit”, and it does not break only due to the low specific density and high strength (viscosity) of its constituent rocks. The tidal effect of Mars is gradually slowing down the movement of Phobos, and in the future, possibly, it will end with its fall to Mars.

The external appearance and geological structure of Phobos can only be judged from images obtained with the help of interplanetary spacecraft. The images obtained by Mariner-9 and Viking-Orbiter clearly show craters, grooves and elements of layered texture.

The origin of the satellites Phobos and Deimos is a mystery to modern science. Previously, the prevailing idea was that both “moons” of Mars were asteroids in the zone of the gravitational field of Mars. Some scientists believe that Phobos and Deimos are a kind of rejects of Mars. It is assumed that layered silicates observed on Mars may also participate in their structure.

In any case, it is required to find an answer to a number of observed features of Phobos and Deimos. Explain, in particular, the reason for the very low specific density of the rocks composing them (1.7 – 1.9 g / cubic cm). At the same time, it is necessary to go beyond the existing fantastic assumptions that Phobos is hollow inside, or that it is an artificial satellite of Mars, built by space robinsons. It is also necessary to find a reasonable explanation for the linear chains of small craters observed on the surface of Phobos and to understand the reasons for their multidirectional movement in orbit (Phobos is decreasing, and Deimos is moving away from Mars) and libration (uneven swaying) of satellites. However, if we take as a basis the hypothesis of the possible participation of gas hydrates in the structure of Phobos ( 4) or phyllosilicates (layered silicates) containing a hydroxyl component in their chemical composition, it can be assumed that the cause of libration is the uneven outflow of gases when the satellite surface is heated. The same reasons can explain the linear confinement of craters formed by linearly oriented “jets” of gas or water vapor. The Phobos images clearly show the linear orientation of small craters. As if they were not formed as a result of a multi-temporal and disbursed fall of meteorites or cryoexplosions, but were knocked out on the surface of the satellite by a strictly linear “machine-gun burst”.

In January 1989, for the interplanetary station “Phobos – 2”, which was in the orbit of Mars, it was planned to fly at a low altitude above the surface of Phobos and probe its composition using a laser installation. In 1986, M.V. Tolkachev published an assumption that laser ranging from Phobos could cause an explosive plasma eruption and lead to the death of the interplanetary station ( 4 ). And so it happened. According to reports published in 1989, when approaching Phobos, “the camera recorded an object 25 km long, presumably of artificial origin, approaching the probe. Several images were sent to Earth, and suddenly the Phobos-2 probe disappeared. ”

In total, 46 rockets with spacecraft and stations have been sent to Mars and its satellites over the past 60 years ( 5 ). Six countries (USA, India, China, Japan, UAE and Russia), as well as the European Space Agency participated in the launches of spacecraft and stations. Only 23 missions were fully or partially successful (Table 1). Mars reluctantly and selectively parts with his secrets.

Successful missions in the history of the exploration of Mars and its satellites

Mission (weight, kg) Launch year

(Country)

Main results
“Mariner-4” ( 260 kg)

Automatic interplanetary station

1964 (USA) July 14, 1965 Passed at a distance of 9846 km from the surface of Mars and transmitted 22 images of its surface
“Mariner-6” (412 kg)

Automatic interplanetary station

1969 (USA) February 24, 1969 passed at a distance of 3437 km over the equatorial regions of Mars and on August 5, 1969 over the planet’s south pole.
“Mariner-7” (412 kg)

Automatic interplanetary station

1969 (USA) August 5, 1969 passed at an altitude of 3551 km above the South Pole of Mars. About 200 surface shots were taken. The temperature (-125 degrees C) of the “polar cap” of Mars has been determined.
“Mars -2” (4650 kg)

Orbital module and descent vehicle

1971 (USSR) November 21, 1971 crashed on the surface of Mars and delivered the coat of arms of the USSR.
“Mars-3” (4643 kg)

Orbital module and descent vehicle

1971 (USSR) The lander made a soft landing on Mars and transmitted video signals for 20 seconds. The orbiter transmitted data until August 1972.
“Mariner-9” (974 kg)

Orbital module

1971 (USA) November 3, 1973 became the first ever American artificial satellite to orbit another planet. For the first time, clear pictures of Phobos and Deimos were obtained. High-resolution images of about 70% of the surface of Mars have been transmitted to Earth.
Mars-5 (4650 kg)

Orbital module

1973 (USSR) On February 12, 1974, he entered Mars orbit and transmitted a number of its images.
“Viking-1” (3399 kg)

Orbital module and descent vehicle

1975 (USA) August 20, 1975 entered the orbit of Mars. On June 20, 1976, the descent vehicle landed.
“Viking-2” ( 3399 kg)

Orbital module and descent vehicle

1975 (USA) July 24, 1976 entered the orbit of Mars. On August 7, 1976, the descent vehicle landed. “Viking-1” and “Viking-2” transmitted to Earth about 50 thousand images of Mars.
Phobos-2

Orbital module

1988 (Russia) Successfully approached Phobos, but did not complete the planned landing.
Mars Global Surveyor

Orbital module

1996 (USA) After successfully entering the orbit of Mars from March 1998 to November 2, 2006, he carried out mapping of the surface of Mars.
Mars parthfinder

Lander and rover Sojouner

1996 (USA) From July 4, 1996 to September 27, 1997, scientific information was transmitted to Earth.
Nozomi

Orbital module

1998 (Japan) In December 2003, it flew 1000 km above the surface of Mars.
“Mars Express» (Mars Express) probe and lander 2003

(European Space Agency)

December 25, 2003 entered the orbit of Mars. The British Beagle 2 probe crashed while landing.
Spirit MER-1  (Mars Exploration Rover), 180 kg 2003 (USA) January 3, 2004 landed on Mars for geological study of the planet. He worked until April 23, 2009.
Opportunity

Mars rover. (180 kg)

2003 (USA) January 25, 2004 landed on the surface of Mars. He worked for 15 years and walked 45 km, took 217 thousand pictures.
Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter

Orbital module

2005 (US) On March 11, 2006, he entered the deep orbit of Mars and is working on the creation of a detailed map of Mars. Capable of fixing objects up to 30 cm in size.
Phoenix , an automated interplanetary station with a lander 2007 (USA) May 25, 2008 sat on the surface of Mars to study water exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. Found traces of perchlorates. The mission was completed on November 2, 2008.
Curiosity

Rover

2011 (US) August 6, 2012 successfully landed on Mars in the area of ​​Gale Crater.
“Mangalyan” (1350 kg)

Automatic interplanetary station

2014 (India) India became the first country in the world to put a probe into Mars orbit on its first try.
Al-Amal

space probe

2021 (UAE) February 9, 2021 entered the orbit of Mars.
“Tianwen-1”
Space probe and rover
2021 (China) On February 10 he entered the orbit of Mars. Prepares for the descent of the rover to the surface of the planet.
Perseverance

Space probe,  rover and helicopter

2021 (USA) On February 19, 2021, the rover was delivered to the surface of Mars and began to explore the planet.

Literature

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2. Gas hydrates: production technology and development prospects // Information note of the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation, December 2013.

3. Galanin A. V. Factors of relief formation on Mars // Dumas of Mars, 2013.

4. Tolkachev MV Not ice and not flame // Knowledge is power, no. 12, p. 14-15.

5. Prizova Ekaterina. The Martian Chronicles of the USSR. Interesting facts about the Soviet colonization of Mars // Rossiyskaya Gazeta, December 2, 2013.

6. Trofimuk AA, Makogon Yu.F., Tolkachev MV Gas hydrate deposits – a new reserve of energy resources // Geology of oil and gas, no. 10, 1981, p. 15 – 22.

7. Trofimuk AA, Makogon Yu.F., Tolkachev MV Chersky NV Features of detection, exploration and development of gas hydrate deposits // Geology and Geophysics, No. 9, 1984, p. 3 -10.

8. Trofimuk A.A., Makogon Yu.F., Tolkachev M.V. On the role of gas hydrates in the processes of accumulation of hydrocarbons and the formation of their deposits // Geology and geophysics, no. 6, 1983, p. 315.

9. Bogoyavlensky Vasily, Bogoyavlensky Igor, Nikonov Roman et all New Catastrophic Gas Blowout and Giant Crater on the Yamal Penensula in 2020: Resualt of the Expedition and Data Processing // Geosciences February 8, 2021, 11, 71 (https: // doi .org /10.3390/ geosciences 11020071).

10. Golombek M., Warner NH, Banerdt WB Geology of the InSight landing site on Mars // Nature Communication, # 11, article # 1014, February 24, 2020.

Gilli G., Forget F., Spiga A., Navarro T., Millour E. et all Impact of Gravity Waves on the Middle Atmosphere of Mars: A Non-Orographic Gravity Wave Parameterization Based on Global Climate Modeling and MCS Observations // Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. Published: 07 February 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JE005873).
Jakovsky Brus M., Edwards Cristofer E. Mars terraforming not possible using present-day technology // Nature Astronomy, # 2, p. 634-639, Jule 31, 2018.
Masse M., Conway SJ, Gargani J. et all Transport processes induced by metastable boiling water under Martian surface // Nature Geoscience. # 9..2016, p. 425-428.
O’Callaghan Jonathan. Waters on Mars: discovery of three buried lakes intrigurs scientists // Nature. September 28, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02751-1.
Sobolev Alexander, Asafov Evgeny V., Purenko Andrey A., Arndt Nikolas T. at all Komatii reveal a hydrous Archaean deep-mantle reservoir // Nature, 2016, vol. 531, p. 628-632.
Yu Wang, Konstantin Glazyrin, Valerry Roizen et all. Novel Hydrogen Clathrate Hydrate // Physical Reviev Letters, vol. 125, iss. 25, published 18 December 2020.

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