Precancerous diseases

(ORDO NEWS) — Precancerous diseases are the “soil”, “background”, on the basis of which the development of a malignant neoplasm is possible.

During the course of the disease, significant changes occur in the structure of cells. If a person at this time and in the future will be affected by harmful factors, then these cells can be transformed into cancerous (atypical).

To prevent the development of oncology, it is necessary to diagnose the disease as early as possible and undergo a qualitative examination and treatment.

Among the diseases of the digestive tract, which can be harbingers of cancer, there are:

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1 – Precancerous diseases of the gallbladder: diffuse-dystrophic calcification of the gallbladder wall or porcelain bladder, adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps.

2 – Precancerous diseases of the esophagus: Plummer-Vinson syndrome (a triad of symptoms – dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia, esophageal stricture), achalasia of the cardia (when the lower esophageal sphincter does not relax enough), Barrett’s syndrome (metaplasia of the cells of the lower esophagus), the consequences of an alkali burn.

3 – Precancerous diseases of the small intestine: polyps – single and multiple.

4 – Precancerous diseases of the colon. Genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyposis (which lead to adenomatous polyps). Syndromes: Peitz-Jeghers, Lynch, Mur-Torre, flat adenomas.

A precancerous condition may be indicated by: the presence of nonspecific ulcerative colitis, villous adenomas, Crohn’s disease.

A rare variant of diffuse polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract is Cronhite-Kinada syndrome. Those people who have undergone a resection of the colon should be on their guard.

5 – Precancerous diseases of the stomach. Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric xanthomas (when benign tumors form in the stomach), chronic type B gastritis with the presence of a gram-negative spiral-shaped microorganism – Helicobacter pylori, and intestinal metaplasia of the stomach are at risk.

A hereditary disease, the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, as well as Menetrier’s disease, when the gastric mucosa thickens and cysts and adenomas appear, can lead to the development of cancer. It is recommended to monitor the health status of people with adenomatous polyps and after gastric resection.

6 – Precancerous diseases of the liver. These include: multiple and single cysts in the liver, chronic hepatitis B and C with rapid progression. Women who take OCs to prevent unwanted pregnancies may develop adenomas.

7 – Precancerous diseases of the pancreas. These include: cystic formations that damage tissues, as well as a progressive inflammatory process – chronic pancreatitis.

How to diagnose precancerous diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

To detect a malignant tumor at an early stage of development, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis using highly informative methods:

  • Sigmoidoscopy is a visual examination of the rectal mucosa and some parts of the sigmoid colon.
  • Colonoscopy is an examination of the internal state of the colon using an endoscope.
  • Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a complete examination of the colon.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy – examination of the esophagus, the state of the stomach and duodenum using an endoscope.
  • Blood test for tumor marker.

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During sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the doctor may take a biopsy material to examine a tissue sample to determine the type of neoplasm. When a histological examination is carried out, it is possible to differentiate the type of tumor – benign or malignant.

Also being held:

  • Impedancemetry – monitoring the peristalsis of the esophagus.
  • Antroduodenal manometry is a study of the motor function of the upper gastrointestinal tract with the registration of pressure inside the stomach.
  • Esophageal manometry – assessment of the contractility of the esophagus.
  • Intragastric pH-metry – measurement of acidity in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Anorectal manometry – measurement of the pressure of the muscles of the anal sphincters.

Modern methods make it possible to examine feces not only for the presence of occult blood, but also to detect the DNA of precancerous and cancerous cells. Due to this, there is the possibility of early diagnosis of a precancerous condition in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.

Precancerous pathologies of female organs

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases of the female reproductive system.

Among the diseases that can provoke the development of oncology, one should name:

  • Cervical polyps, erosion, epithelial dysplasia
  • Dysplasia of the epithelial tissue of the vagina and vulva
  • Atypical hyperplasia of the endometrium of the uterus
  • Mastopathy
  • Thickening of the cells of the cervix

A precancerous condition may indicate:

  • Ductal mastopathy
  • Nodular (lobular) mastopathy
  • Fibroadenoma

For diagnostic purposes, the doctor sends the woman to undergo a study (the type depends on the individual history):

  • To make an x-ray of the mammary glands – mammography
  • Ultrasound of the mammary glands, examine regional lymph nodes to exclude metastatic lesions, as well as the pelvic organs
  • Do a DNA test and pass genetic tests
  • A smear for cytology from the vagina and cervix, discharge from the genitals, breast nipples
  • Blood test for tumor marker

In addition, colposcopy, onco cytological and histological studies are performed.

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Precancerous genesis of skin diseases

If there are nodules on the skin and they grow rapidly, as well as in the presence of papules, age spots, thickening of the skin in the elbows and knees, it is important to contact a dermatologist to make a diagnosis and prescribe treatment. All of these manifestations can be a manifestation of diseases:

  • Bowen
  • Warty precancer
  • Keratosis
  • Acrochordona (horny keratoma)
  • Hyperkeratosis of the red border of the lips

A special form of ulcerative inflammation of the lower lip – abrasive precancerous cheilitis of Manganotti, affects males in old age.

Skin precancerous diseases are visible to the naked eye, and biological material can also be submitted for histology. If as a result deviations from the norm are visible, then the person has oncology.

Lungs

Respiratory diseases can cause lung cancer:

  • Chronic pneumonia. Frequent and long-lasting pneumonia can be harbingers of cancer. Fluorography is a reliable diagnostic method. The doctor must correctly analyze the data obtained in order to exclude or identify pathological changes.
  • Bronchiectasis – violations in the lungs, leading to the expansion and destruction of large bronchi.

Thyroid

A healthy thyroid gland is the shield of the body, protecting against all sorts of misfortunes. But, due to poor environmental conditions, a person develops diseases such as:

  • Thyroiditis
  • Nodular goiter

The thyroid gland is the first to react to adverse factors, therefore it becomes inflamed. Lack of treatment and observation can lead to a malignant tumor. The doctor prescribes a histology, ultrasound.

Symptoms of precancerous conditions of internal organs

Most often, a person does not feel any symptoms or he has such manifestations as with other diseases.

A precancer of the female reproductive system is accidentally discovered by a gynecologist during examination. The precancerous condition of the mammary glands is mild and may be asymptomatic.

It is required to be more attentive to oneself, to attend to alarming “calls” so as not to miss the stage of the state of precancer.

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Symptoms of a precancerous condition of the gastrointestinal tract are similar to manifestations in the disease of the same organs. In addition, patients quickly lose weight, constantly suffer from epigastric pain.

The skin acquires a yellow tint, the sclera of the eyes are also marked with yellowness. The temperature rises, diarrhea alternates with constipation, vomiting with blood is observed.

A dermatovenereologist can visually assess the condition of the skin and identify pathology. But it is not always possible to diagnose a precancerous condition at an early stage.

Symptoms are similar to the clinic of skin diseases. Only by the results of the tests can we conclude whether there is a tumor or not.

The urinary system is the most disguised. Predrac does not show up at all. Symptoms make themselves felt when the disease enters the active stage – pain in the kidneys appears, blood is found in the urine.

If the adenoma has grown, the outflow of urine will be difficult. Only an attentive attitude to yourself will help not to cross the point of no return.

The precancer of the maxillofacial region proceeds calmly, it can be determined by visual examination. The dentist, conducting sanitation, can detect a pathological focus of a malignant tumor.

Harbingers of lung cancer are also not quickly detected. Doctors are wary if the patient often and for a long time suffers from inflammation.

Precancer of the thyroid gland manifests itself in the same way as the corresponding diseases. A person quickly loses weight, becomes irritable, quickly gets tired, there is increased sweating.

Treatment

Precancer therapy includes 2 areas:

  • The focus of the disease is either destroyed or removed
  • Everything possible is done to prevent the growth of the tumor

Facultative precancer with a low probability of transition of the state to oncology. With this manifestation, the doctor simply observes the course of the disease, does not remove the focus. Therapy is about healing.

As you know, a positive result cannot be achieved if you do not adhere to proper nutrition, continue to smoke and drink alcohol, and also do not treat inflammatory diseases.

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In the obligate form of precancer, the focus is removed. This is due to the fact that there is a high probability of degeneration of a benign tumor into a malignant one. Methods used:

  • Electrosurgery
  • Cryotherapy
  • Laser therapy

If the procedures did not help, radiation is performed.

According to statistics, if a precancerous condition is diagnosed in time, then the success of recovery is 85-97%.

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