New state of matter in quantum gas discovered

(ORDO NEWS) — American physicists have developed a quantum analogue of the Archimedes screw, which, instead of water, moves clusters of gas atoms into higher energy states. The results of the experiment are described in the journal Science.

Physicists recently confirmed the existence of “quantum scars” – unstable quantum states as elements of quantum chaos – in a system with many interacting particles, known as the quantum many-body system. Now, researchers at Stanford University have for the first time obtained a quantum scar state in a quantum gas. They succeeded because they added magnetism to the quantum experiment.

Quantum scars are an extremely rare condition in a chaotic quantum system, in which particles repeat their own tracks, like people who walk the same paths. This state of chaotic systems is of particular interest, since achieving thermal or thermal equilibrium in various parts of quantum systems and counteracting so-called “thermalization” is the key to creating stable quantum systems that will help implement new technologies such as quantum computers.

“I expected our system to change only a little in gas stability,” said study leader Benjamin Lev, assistant professor of applied physics and physics at Stanford’s School of Humanities and Science, in a university press release. I will see its sharp, complete stabilization. It was beyond my wildest guesses. ”

Researchers have created a highly unusual experimental system called the Tonks-Girardeau supergas. Such a system is a highly excited one-dimensional quantum gas, the atoms of which are limited by one line of motion. Even under the action of extreme forces, they theoretically should not collapse into a spherical mass, as atoms of normal gases do. In practice, however, they break down.

Physicists at Stanford have suggested that Tonks-Girardeau gas, made up of atoms of the strong magnetic element dysprosium, will resist collapse slightly more than non-magnetic gases. But the result exceeded all scientists’ expectations.

“The magnetic interactions that we were able to add were very weak compared to the attractive interactions that were already present in the gas,” explains Lev. “So we thought that little would change, that the gas would collapse anyway, it just wasn’t that easy. we were wrong. ”

The resulting gas from dysprosium atoms ultimately led to the production of Tonks-Girardot supergas, which remained stable no matter what. Even when researchers raised the system to a higher energy state, the atoms did not collapse.

The experimental results were unexpected even for the authors. They honestly admit that they do not yet know whether their discovery will have any practical application in the near future. But, undoubtedly, this is a step forward in the study of quantum states, scientists note.


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