How Yakut scientists create human body parts

(ORDO NEWS) — In the laboratories of NEFU, scientists work on fundamental and applied scientific research in the field of genetics, human physiology, and medical biotechnologies. In recent years, experts have focused on the creation of biomedical products based on polylactide and hydroxyapatite.

Synthetic leather

This science-intensive project aims to help patients whose skin has suffered from burns, extensive wounds, frostbite and other deformities. Scientists are developing a biodegradable and biocompatible material that can be used in transplantation.

Now experts are creating matrices for human skin substitutes based on polylactide. The biomaterial with its use has a number of advantages: it does not cause allergies and does not require re-applying the substrate during surgery, so the tissues heal without scars. In addition, it withstands temperatures of 170-220 ° C and fully takes root in the body within 6-18 months.

Laboratory experts process polylactide by extrusion, creating films of various thicknesses from 10 to 200 microns. In the future, the scientists plan to apply for a patent on a method for obtaining matrices for dermal equivalents based on polylactide.

The material is currently being tested in cell models using human dermal fibroblasts.

In 2017, in Yakutia, for the first time, human skin was restored after a burn using fibroblasts grown in the laboratory of the North-Eastern Federal University.

Scientists from the NEFU Medical Institute, together with doctors from the burn department of the Republican Hospital No. 2, managed to perform a complex operation to transplant a biotechnological cell product onto the open wound of a patient with a burn.

Artificial bone

Scientists of the main Yakut university continued to study the possibilities of polylactide, including for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system.

Researchers have created a unique recipe for a new composite compound that will be used to make a material similar to human bone in terms of density, elasticity and strength. It is also planned to create self-decomposing pins for tubular bones from it.

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The composition of the composite material includes polylactide and hydroxyapatite (a mineral from the apatite group – the main mineral component of bones), the optimal proportion of which allows you to pass through the nozzle of a 3D printer with high accuracy and without loss.

So it turns out to create any conformations and models that are geometrically combined with the surfaces of injured bones. The technology and the obtained samples can be in demand in traumatology, maxillofacial and plastic surgery.

Such developments are especially relevant in the northern regions of the republic, where high rates of injuries and frostbite of soft tissues are recorded in winter. The researchers are confident that composite biomaterial pins are preferable to the current metal pins based on titanium and steel.

Artificial liver 

For patients who are indicated for liver transplantation, NEFU specialists are developing a system of extracorporeal purification and blood enrichment. The technology allows to provide patients with the normalization of biochemical parameters of blood, pathologically altered in liver failure.

The essence of the technology lies in the indirect interaction of blood plasma with laboratory-cultivated

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hepatocytes, liver cells, which are involved in the synthesis and storage of proteins, the transformation of carbohydrates and make up to 80% of its mass.

The interaction occurs in a special network of semi-permeable membranes, structurally repeating the physiological pattern of blood flow in the hepatic lobule.

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