How Nelson Mandela received the Nobel Prize, and why the whole world knows him

(ORDO NEWS) — July 18, 1918 was born statesman and politician of the Republic of South Africa, former President of South Africa (07/18/1994 – 12/05/1999) Nelson Mandela, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate 1993. Until now, both in society and in the press, there are different opinions about this man: some write that he is a national hero, others are a terrorist. Who is right, where is the truth? “A fighter for freedom”, “one of the famous figures of the 20th century”, “a modest altruist who single-handedly managed to crush the apartheid regime”, “a prisoner of conscience” – in the epitaphs published by the leading Western media, Nelson Mandela appears as a kind of impeccable politician who took over after death deserves a place in the pantheon of “democratic heroes”. Liberal journalists and human rights activists raised him to the banner in the early 90s, proclaiming him a “symbol of resistance.”

Short information

  • Name: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
  • Date of birth: 18-07-1918
  • Date of death: 05-12-2013
  • Birthplace: Mfezo, South Africa
  • Occupation: statesman, president of South Africa

Born into a family that was related to the ruling dynasty in the country, Nelson Mandela devoted his life to making South Africa a democratic country, and its people had the same rights and freedoms as the citizens of Europe and America. Having given 27 years of his own freedom for this, Mandela became a symbol of a man who does not spare himself for the sake of others.

Biography of Nelson Mandela

The name of Nelson Mandela is synonymous with freedom, it is on a par with the names of Gandhi, Patrice Lumumba and Angela Davis. After spending a quarter of his life in prison, he did not change his convictions and became the first black president of his country.

Formation of political views

The news that Jongitamba intended to marry Nelson led the young man to flee to Johannesburg and get a job as a security guard, but he soon reconciled with his guardian, who paid for his studies at the University of the Witwatersrand. Jongitamba cherished the hope that Nelson would receive a law degree and become his colleague, which was Gadla Mandela.

Nelson Mandela as a young man In Johannesburg, Nelson became a member of the ANC, a left-wing political organization. After a year, he left his studies and, together with Tambo, opened a law office to provide services to the black population.

The beginning of the creation of bantustans, a kind of reservations for the indigenous population, restricting the rights of representatives of the indigenous peoples of South Africa, and the flourishing of the apartheid policy led to mass protests, but did not affect the policy of the authorities.

Nelson Mandela at the University At the ANC, Nelson and Oliver met the most prominent activists in the Congress, Joe Slovo, the son of Lithuanian immigrants, and Harry Schwartz, who came from a wealthy family of German Jews. Nelson Mandela: Documentary After the victory of the Afrikaner Party, which fiercely supports the policy of apartheid, which many modern researchers call a necessary measure against the eternal internecine wars that have tormented the country for centuries, in the early 60s, members of the ANC began to develop more decisive methods of struggle. Activists began to organize rallies and demonstrations, strikes, demanding the resignation of the government.

Politician Nelson Mandela In 1956, about 150 members of the ANC, including Nelson, were arrested on suspicion of preparing an armed overthrow of power. The investigation of criminal activity lasted almost four years, and by a court decision all the detainees were acquitted.

Prisoner of conscience

From 1964 to 1982, the “black bomber” was kept in an institution on Robben Island, where he was a cartographer, which allowed him to move freely around the island and even live in a staff cottage. Mandela was engaged in writing books and political manifestos, as well as education, he was finally able to get a bachelor’s degree in law.

Nelson Mandela in prison It is known that the South African government repeatedly offered the prisoner freedom in exchange for renouncing his political beliefs and violent methods of struggle, but the “prisoner of conscience” did not agree.

In the late 70s, the movement for the release of Mandela reached truly universal proportions, which was facilitated by the competent policy of Slovo and Schwartz, who spread the information that he was kept in solitary confinement, most of the day he was engaged in slave labor, and his daily ration was half the diet of a white prisoner.

People demand the release of Nelson Mandela In the spring of 1982, Mandela, who became the most famous political prisoner in the world, was transferred to a Cape Town prison and was soon operated on – he was diagnosed with a prostate tumor.

The shattered health of Mandela was also used by the ideologues of the ANC, which remained under the ban, but did not lead to the release of its leader. The situation changed only after 4 years. In 1988, President Le Clerc signed a decree on the legalization of parties that fought against apartheid, including the ANC, and already on February 11, 1990, the media around the world broadcast the release of Nelson Mandela, who had spent 27 years in prison.

Early years

Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 on the east coast of South Africa, in the village of Mvezo, located in the vicinity of Umtata. The politician’s father, Gadla Mandela, was the head of the village and belonged to the younger branch of the ruling Eastern Cape dynasty, speaking the Xhosa dialect. In the course of disagreements with the colonial government, the head of the family was deprived of his position and, together with his wives and children, was moved to a neighboring village.

Nelson was one of the chief’s thirteen children, born of his third wife, and was given the name Rolihlahla, meaning “one who brings trouble to himself.” The Methodist teachers had difficulty pronouncing the children’s African names, so each of them received an English name. The teacher named little Rolihlahla Nelson.

Nelson Mandela in his youth In the 1930s, Jongintaba Dalindyebo became the interim ruler of the region, whose comrade-in-arms and assistant was Gadla Mandela. After Gadla’s death in 1927, the regent Jongitaba became Nelson’s patron and, after the young man passed the initiation rite in 1939, paid for his studies at Fortre Hare Public University, one of the few universities in South Africa that accepted black students.

At university, Nelson studied with Jongitamba’s son, studying liberal arts. Dissatisfaction with the existing order took on protest forms after meeting student Oliver Tambo. Young people took part in anti-government demonstrations, for which they were expelled from the university in 1940.

Violence in response to violence

Being a supporter of the ideas of Gandhi, until the early 60s, Mandela opposed the use of violence, but the incident called the Sharpeville execution influenced the change in his political concept.

Nelson Mandela with associates In the spring of 1960, ANC activists organized a peaceful protest against the introduction of a permit system. More than 6,000 people came to the building of the police station in the early March morning and offered to arrest themselves for not having their registration documents. Despite the fairly correct behavior of the police, who tried to calm the crowd, whose number increased to 10 thousand, the situation got out of control, and fire was opened from the air, as a result of which more than 50 protesters were killed. The UN condemned the South African government, but the authorities chose to tighten the screws and ban the ANC, forcing the opposition to go underground.

In response to the shooting of civilians, the radical Slovo and Schwartz created a paramilitary offshoot of the ANC, which Nelson was offered to head. The grouping consisted of the most physically prepared members of the ANC and provided for guerrilla methods of struggle. In two years, in large settlements and cities, the Spear of the Nation group carried out about 200 acts of sabotage in government offices, post offices, banks and crowded places, which led to the death of hundreds of people.

The policy of the ANC was condemned by all countries, and Margaret Thatcher called Mandela terrorist No. 1.

Nelson Mandela In 1962, a certain David Motsamayi was detained and sentenced to 5 years in prison for illegally crossing the border. But the investigation, which led to the arrest of the ANC fighters and a search of their training bases, showed that the commander of the “black bombers” himself was hiding under the name of Motsamayi. “Government violence has bred retaliatory violence,” Mandela said in a 1962 trial.

In the spring of 1964, the militant activists of the ANC and Nelson Mandela were convicted of committing sabotage terrorist acts and using tactical weapons against the civilian population and sentenced to capital punishment, but in April 1964 the death penalty was commuted to life imprisonment.

Family and childhood

Mandela was born into a family that came from a dynasty of rulers. But in fact, his father had no rights to the throne, since Nelson’s great-great-grandfather belonged to the younger descendants of the ruler.

The father of the future human rights activist was the head of the village in which they lived – Mfezo. But when his relations with the ruling authorities of the colony deteriorated, he was deposed and, together with his wives and children, was sent to the Tsgong settlements. Although he still retained a place in the Privy Council of the Thembu – the family of the rulers of the South African nation to which they belonged – a braid.

As was customary among the Xhosa people, Mandela’s father had four wives. Nelson’s mother was the third wife, his father had 13 children in total.

The name Rolihlahla means “prankster”, and the boy was named Nelson by a teacher at school. Then it was common practice – students received “non-African” names on the very first day of study. Someone associated this with the colonial traditions of the British, someone with convenience. By the way, he was the first of the family to go to school.

When Nelson was nine, his father died – the doctors could not cure him of a late form of tuberculosis. The mother took the boy to the palace of Jongintaba Dalindyebo – he became Nelson’s mentor and regent, sent him to school, which was located near the palace.

Study and independent life

At the age of sixteen, Nelson went through the tradition of initiation, after which he entered the boarding university at Clarkebury. Study was given to Nelson easily. He received a certificate of complete secondary education as an external student: instead of three years, he studied for only two. Nelson also became the heir to his father’s seat on the Privy Council, so after receiving a certificate, in 1937, he moved to the town of Beaufort Fort, where he became a student at one of the local colleges. In these, mainly representatives of the dynasty that was in power, the Tembu, studied. While studying, he started running and boxing.

In 1939, he was enrolled at the University of Fort Hare, the only educational institution in South Africa where “colored” children received higher education. In addition to the dark-skinned people, immigrants from India also received knowledge there. Nelson chose the humanities for himself.

At the end of the first academic year, a coup took place within the walls of the university: students protested against the policy followed by the university leadership. Nelson was given an ultimatum: either he becomes a member of the student government, or his studies end there. Mandela took the documents from Fort Hayer.

In 1941, Mandela’s regent decided to marry him, but Nelson did not like this plan very much. So he decided to move to Johannesburg. There he went to work in the mine. Nelson got a job as a watchman, but did not manage to work for a long time: the boss found out about his escape and fired Mandela. Tom had to again look for a new place of residence – he settled in the suburbs of Johannesburg. In addition, he wrote to his guardian, where he apologized for his childish behavior and explained that he did not intend to marry yet. Fortunately, Jongintaba understood his ward and even helped to solve financial problems. And also began to support Nelson financially – so that he could get an education.

Nelson went on an internship in a law firm as a clerk, he also graduated in absentia from the South African Institute, becoming a Bachelor of Arts.

After, in 1943, he applied to the law faculty of the Witwatersrand Institute, but did not receive a diploma.

Resistance and the ANC

Beginning in 1943, Nelson periodically participated in actions against the laws adopted by the state authorities. As a result, he is included in the African National Congress, and then acts as one of the founders of the Youth League. And if the AMK is limited only to peaceful protests against the current authorities, the League stands for more active actions.

In 1948, Nelson was taken to the post of secretary of the AMK Youth League, a year later he was already a member of the council of this organization, and a year later – already its president. Since the country has been ruled for two years by the African National Party, which supports apartheid, Mandela becomes the organizer of an action of disobedience to the authorities. He understands that the NPA will soon ban the League, so he developed a plan to work underground.

In 1952, Nelson decided that it was necessary to help the population of the country not only in word, but also in deed. Therefore, together with a friend, they open Mandela and Tambo. This law firm was the first to provide free legal advice and assistance to blacks.

In 1955, Nelson helped organize the People’s Congress, during which the famous Charter of Freedoms was adopted. In it, the activists described in detail the principles on which a democratic South Africa should be built. This Charter was accepted as their main plan of action by all the parties that opposed apartheid in the country.

In December 1956, Nelson was arrested and charged with treason. But they were soon released, and the charges were dropped five years later.

In 1960, Mandela was proclaimed leader of the ANC. The organization decided that peaceful action to change the situation in the country would not be enough, so in 1961 Nelson was chosen to head the armed wing of the ANC. They were called “Umkhonto we Sizwe” – the spear of the nation. At first, their task was to destroy all the country’s military installations – this is how the guerrilla war against apartheid began. Mandela, by hook or by crook, found sponsors abroad, for their money he managed to conduct military training for ANC groups. Already before the 80s, guerrilla warfare had grown to large scale. In some actions, civilians also died. Mandela himself confirmed that, while fighting apartheid, they also violated many of the human rights and freedoms for which they themselves fought.

27 years in solitary confinement

In August 1962, Mandela was caught after almost a year and a half of persecution. All this time, under false documents, he traveled all over the country as the driver of businessman Cecil Williams. The latter managed to move to England at the last moment.

In October, the court sentenced Nelson to five years in prison. Six months later, the South African police, during a raid on a farm where one of the headquarters of the apartheid resistance groups was located, found Mandela’s diaries and plans. He was again accused of treason. At first, Nelson faced the death penalty, but soon the sentence was changed to life imprisonment in a prison on Robbin Island.

There, Mandela lived in solitary confinement, but he was given the right to receive education in absentia. Thus, he became a bachelor, having received a law degree at the University of London. He spent eighteen years on Robbin Island, receiving only one letter every six months. In 1982 he was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison. Three years later, Mandela was offered early release if he promised not to fight violently with the authorities. Nelson refused.

Titles, awards and prizes

  • Order of Playa Giron (Cuba, 1984)
  • Star of Friendship of Peoples (GDR, 1984)
  • Sakharov Prize (1988)
  • International Lenin Peace Prize (USSR, 1990).
  • Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights (WSNLA, 1990)
  • Order of Bharat Ratna (India, 1990)
  • Order of Nishan-e-Pakistan (Pakistan, 1992)
  • Nobel Peace Prize (1993) (shared with Frederick de Klerk) “for their work towards a peaceful end to the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundation for a new democracy in South Africa.”
  • Order of the Legion of Honor (France, 1994)
  • Order of Friendship (Russia, 1995)
  • Order of Merit (UK, 1995)
  • Knight of the Order of the Elephant (Denmark, 1996)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali (Mali, 1996)
  • Chain of the Order of the Nile (Egypt,…
  • Order of Playa Giron (Cuba, 1984)
  • Star of Friendship of Peoples (GDR, 1984)
  • Sakharov Prize (1988)
  • International Lenin Peace Prize (USSR, 1990).
  • Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights (WSNLA, 1990)
  • Order of Bharat Ratna (India, 1990)
  • Order of Nishan-e-Pakistan (Pakistan, 1992)
  • Nobel Peace Prize (1993) (shared with Frederick de Klerk) “for their work towards a peaceful end to the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundation for a new democracy in South Africa.”
  • Order of the Legion of Honor (France, 1994)
  • Order of Friendship (Russia, 1995)
  • Order of Merit (UK, 1995)
  • Knight of the Order of the Elephant (Denmark, 1996)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali (Mali, 1996)
  • Chain of the Order of the Nile (Egypt, 1997)
  • US Congressional Gold Medal (USA, 1997)
  • Order of the Seraphim (Sweden, 1997)
  • Companion of the Order of Canada (1998)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olaf (Norway, 1998)
  • Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 1st class (Ukraine, 1998)
  • Honorary Companion of the Order of Australia (1999)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau (Netherlands, 1999)
  • Honorary Citizen of Canada (2000)
  • Presidential Medal of Freedom (USA, 2002)
  • Order of Mapungubwe in platinum 1st class (South Africa, 2002)
  • Bailly Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (UK, 2004)
  • Order of Stara Planina (Bulgaria, 2008)
  • Order of the Aztec Eagle (Mexico, 2010)
  • Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal (Canada, 2012)
  • International Manhae Prize (Republic of Korea, 2012)

Wedding

When Walter and Albertine moved into a large house at 7372 Orlando West, they rented out their old house to Sam. Evelyn and Sam continued to visit Sisulu, and one day Evelyn saw his new lodger, Nelson Mandela. She later said that “I think I fell in love with him the first time I saw him”, and after a few days they started dating. A few months later, he proposed to her. The wedding took place on October 5, 1944 in the local court of Johannesburg. They couldn’t afford a wedding feast.

Nelson Mandela later reminisced about the house he shared with Evelyn at 8115 Orlando West:

The young family had little money and moved into a room in the house of Evelyn’s sister, Kate, where she lived with her husband Mgudlwa, a mine worker, and their two children. They didn’t pay rent, but they shared the money. She later said that their relationship in these early years was happy, that “everyone we knew said that we were a very good couple.”

She became pregnant, and on February 23, 1945, she gave birth to a son, Thembekile, in a nursing home. Then they moved into a two-room house at 719 Orlando West. It was during this period that Mandela began to engage in political activities in the African National Congress. Libi, Mandela’s sister, noted that Evelyn “did not want to hear a word about politics.”

Screen adaptations

2013 – Long road to freedom

Interesting Facts

  • In honor of Mandela, the English band The Specials AKA recorded the song “Nelson Mandela”.
  • The urban district of Nelson Mandela Bay (which also houses the Nelson Mandela Bay stadium) and the Uganda National Stadium are named after Mandela.
  • A street is named after Mandela in Cape Town.
  • Street named after Mandela in Maputo, Mozambique
  • A monument to Nelson Mandela has been erected in the center of London.
  • In 1988, a USSR postage stamp dedicated to Mandela was issued.
  • In 2009, the movie Invictus was filmed – a biographical drama based on the life of Nelson Mandela.
  • In 2012, Google created a digital archive dedicated to Nelson Mandela.
  • In 2012, the Reserve Bank of South Africa introduced…
  • In honor of Mandela, the English band The Specials AKA recorded the song “Nelson Mandela”.
  • The urban district of Nelson Mandela Bay (which also houses the Nelson Mandela Bay stadium) and the Uganda National Stadium are named after Mandela.
  • A street is named after Mandela in Cape Town.
  • Street named after Mandela in Maputo, Mozambique
  • A monument to Nelson Mandela has been erected in the center of London.
  • In 1988, a USSR postage stamp dedicated to Mandela was issued.
  • In 2009, the movie Invictus was filmed – a biographical drama based on the life of Nelson Mandela.
  • In 2012, Google created a digital archive dedicated to Nelson Mandela.
  • In 2012, the Reserve Bank of South Africa introduced a new series of banknotes of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 rand, which depicts a portrait of Nelson Mandela.
  • In 2012, a monument to Nelson Mandela was erected near the city of Howick, near Durban.
  • The 2013 film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom chronicles the life of Nelson Mandela from his childhood in the countryside to his ascension to South Africa’s first democratically elected president. The premiere of the film took place on the day of Mandela’s death, December 5, and the news of his death was announced to those who attended the event right from the stage after the screening ended. The role of Nelson Mandela was played by Idris Elba.
  • In 2013, a monument to Nelson Mandela was erected in Cape Town.
  • On February 9, 2014, on the 24th anniversary of Mandela’s release from prison, the South African Postal Service issued postage stamps bearing his image. 5 million stamps were produced, sold in a special Mandela information folder, valued at $4.50.
  • On April 28, 2014, in front of the stairs of the Parliament building in Cape Town, President Jacob Zuma, in the presence of Frederick de Klerk, unveiled a bronze bust of Mandela on a granite plinth 2.28 meters high.

Personal life

Nelson Mandela was married three times. The first wife in his biography was Evelyn Makaziva. In this union, they had 2 sons – Madiba Thembekile and Makgatho Lewanika, and 2 daughters – Pumla Makaziwe and Makaziwe Mandela. However, after 14 years of marriage, the couple decided to leave.

Soon Mandela married Winnie Dlamini, who bore him 2 girls – Zenani and Zindzi. This marriage lasted from 1958 to 1996.

For the third and last time, Nelson married Grace Michel in 1998. He lived with this woman until the end of his days.

Over the years of his biography, Nelson Mandela published many publications on political and social topics. One of his most famous books was The Long Road to Freedom. Also, the works “Conversations with myself” and “Struggle is my life” received great popularity.

In addition, Mandela was known as a speaker, gathering around him many like-minded people. Many especially remember his speech in the courtroom entitled “I am ready to die”, delivered by him in the spring of 1964.

Prizes

1995 Winner – Sunday Times Literary Award (Best Non-Fiction (Alan Peyton Award), Long Road to Freedom. Autobiography of a Prisoner Who Became President) Total 2

Death

Nelson Holilala Mandela died on December 5, 2013 in Johannesburg at the age of 95. A few months before his death, he was admitted to a local hospital with a recurrence of a lung infection.

Initially, his health began to improve, but, in the end, the heart of the famous anti-apartheid fighter could not stand it and stopped beating.

Tens of thousands of people came to say goodbye to Mandela. He was buried with full honors. An interesting fact is that in South Africa a 10-day mourning was declared, in India – 5 days, and in Venezuela – 3 days. Nelson Mandela found peace in his native village of Tsgunu.

Prison and presidency

Mandela was under arrest for 27 years, but this did not break him at all. At the same time, he had the worst conditions of detention and minimal rights. For example, he was allowed to send only 1 letter or make only 1 call every six months.

However, thanks to his friends and like-minded people, Nelson became increasingly popular not only in South Africa, but throughout the world. He was written about in all the newspapers and talked about on television. The public was amazed at Mandela’s resilience and fearlessness.

Interestingly, while in prison, he managed to graduate from the University of London in absentia and become a bachelor of law.

In the 80s, feeling the pressure of most states, the government is trying to find common ground with Nelson Mandela. He is promised freedom if he refuses to fight against the policy of apartheid. But Nelson does not agree to such conditions, preferring to remain in the cell as before. This act caused even more admiration from people all over the world.

In 1989, when Frederik Willem de Klerk won the presidential election, he ordered a review of the Mandela case. As a result, the next year the authorities released the famous prisoner to freedom. Despite this, the relationship between Nelson and de Klerk left much to be desired.

Even after Mandela received a joint Nobel Prize with the president, he did not find a common language with him. Once at liberty, the prisoner again began to fight with the current government, accompanied by civil and military skirmishes.

All this led to the fact that in 1994 the first democratic elections in the history of South Africa were held. As a result of the vote, two-thirds of citizens cast their votes for Nelson Mandela. As a result, he became the first black president of South Africa.

During the 5 years of his presidency, Mandela carried out many important social reforms, the most significant of which are:

  • free medicine for children and pregnant women;
  • free education and meals in schools for children under 14;
  • equality in the payment of social benefits;
  • increasing subsidies for villagers;
  • land reforms;
  • combating child poverty;
  • protecting the rights and improving labor for workers;
  • elimination of racial discrimination.

Also during this period of his biography, Nelson Mandela rebuilt hundreds of hospitals, provided housing for three million compatriots, provided access to water for millions of people, and also carried out large-scale electrification and telephone installation.

After retiring, Mandela fought the spread of AIDS in the country until his last days. An interesting fact is that, according to statistics, about 5 million carriers of this disease live in South Africa, which is much more than in any other state.

President of South Africa

In 1991, Mandela was elected president of the African National Congress. Mandela’s speeches of this period contain a veiled call to fight and are more directed at the government. The leaders of many states reacted negatively to the release of the freedom fighter, but President Le Clerc managed to maintain a precarious balance of power, which had a positive effect on the internal situation in the country and was the reason for awarding the Mandela-Le Clerc tandem with the Nobel Peace Prize.

In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president. In the March 1994 parliamentary elections, the ANC won with more than 62% of the vote, and a month later Mandela took the presidency. During his reign, he issued a series of laws that made a breakthrough in the field of restoring the equality of the black and white population. Innovations also had a beneficial effect on the growth of the well-being of South African citizens, the development of health care and education.

Mandela’s long-time collaborator Slovo was appointed Minister of Housing, and Mr. Schwartz took over as South African Ambassador to the United States.

President of South Africa – Nelson Mandela After the end of his presidential term in 1999, Mandela lectured at universities, headed some social and political organizations, was involved in charity, poverty and the spread of AIDS.

How did the Mandela Effect come about?

So, after Fiona Broom discovered in 2010 that a huge number of people remember the non-existent funeral of Nelson Mandela, a lot of things in the world have changed. Shops suddenly began to be called differently. The logos looked different. The names of favorite foods and sweets, such as chewing gum, were spelled differently. Favorite characters in the movies spoke lines differently, and songs ended in a new way, not like before. This is because the Internet, with its unique ability to bring people together, quickly brought the Mandela Effect into trends.

For example, one popular theory is that after the launch of the Large Hadron Collider in 2008, a split in time appeared at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the world’s largest high-energy physics laboratory. Of course, the proponents of this theory have absolutely no evidence, but some true believers believe that there are infinite universes closely connected to ours, and we move from one universe to another, since our timeline is in a constant state of flux (whatever it is did not mean).

While traveling between universes is attractive and beloved by filmmakers and cartoonists, the Mandela Effect can hardly be explained by quantum mechanics. In fact, as many scientists note, the answer must be sought in the complex structure and work of human memory.

Read even more interesting articles about how physicists explain the theory of the Multiverse on our channel in Yandex.Zen. There are regularly published articles that are not on the site.

How do scientists explain the Mandela Effect?

In the 1970s, University of California professor Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues conducted extensive research on false memories and the effect of misinformation. False memories are memories of things we never actually experienced. It is noteworthy that the study of these phenomena began long before Loftus, during the development of very important theories about memory and the construction of knowledge. For example, British psychologist Frederick Bartlett found in 1932 that people misremembered information from a story they had read long ago and made connections—almost guessing—between correct and incorrect information.

In one of the first studies conducted by Loftus and her colleagues, scientists resorted to suggestion, one of the methods of psychotherapy. The researchers told the subjects that they got lost in the mall as children. Interestingly, in other studies, such as the work of scientists from Tennessee, the subjects were inspired by false memories that they almost drowned as children, but rescued them. The results obtained in the course of several studies from different countries showed that the suggestion was successful with half of the subjects.

Theories and explanations for the Mandela Effect are as numerous and varied as the effects themselves.

The Mandela effect also works in the case of Star Wars. Remember what exactly Darth Vader said to Luke? Sure?

“The driving force behind the Mandela effect is suggestibility, or the tendency to believe what others think is true. Surprising as it may seem, the very fact that a person perceives false information can discredit the authenticity of a memory already “recorded” in the brain. That is why, in court, authorized persons protest against “leading questions” that presuppose a specific answer in advance. Here’s an example of a leading question: “Do you remember the 1990s movie Shazam, in which Sinbad played the role of a genie?” not only implies that such a film actually exists, but can also instill a false memory of having seen it in the past,” writes Caitlin Aamodt, a doctoral student in the Department of Neurology at the University of California, Los Angeles, in an article on Aeon. Thus, most of the Mandela effects are associated with memory errors and social misinformation. That fact, that many inaccuracies are trivial suggests that they are the result of selective attention or erroneous conclusions. It is important to note that all of the above does not mean that the Mandela effect cannot be explained using the Multiverse theory. Indeed, the concept of parallel universes is consistent with the work of quantum physicists. But until the existence of alternate realities has been established, psychological theories seem much more plausible.

First black president of South Africa

In April 1994, democratic elections were held in South Africa, as a result of which the ANC received 62% of the vote, and on May 10, 1994, Mandela, who headed it, officially took office as president of the country. During his years in office, Mandela undertook a number of important socio-economic reforms aimed at overcoming social and economic inequalities in South Africa.

In my country you first go to jail and then you become president.

An active supporter of the armed struggle against the domination of the white minority in the past, South African President Mandela took the position of national and racial reconciliation. He forgave recent enemies and sought to unite South Africans under the idea of ​​a “nation of all colors of the rainbow”, advocating the creation of a society in which representatives of all races and nationalities would equally enjoy democratic rights.

Unfortunately, far from all the dreams of the first black president of South Africa, who resigned on June 16, 1999, have become a reality. More than 10 years after Mandela left big politics in South Africa, black racism gained momentum and it became extremely problematic for a non-black resident of the country to get a job.

No one is born with hatred for another person because of skin color, origin or religion. People learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, one should try to teach them love, because love is much closer to the human heart.

Second arrest and trial

In August 1962, Mandela was again arrested by the South African government without charge. Three days later, he was accused of organizing a workers’ strike and illegally leaving the country. In October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. In July 1963, as a result of the arrest of several more leaders of the ANC and the interrogations that followed, additional charges were brought against Mandela of preparing explosions of electricity and gas supply facilities in South Africa, collaborating with the Communist Party, and developing a plan to bring foreign troops into the country (Mandela did not agree with the last point of the accusation). ).

The punishment for such crimes in South Africa was the death penalty. All the accused, except for R. Bernstein, were found guilty. In 1964, the death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.

For the first eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison, the ANC leader served in prison on Robben Island, in solitary confinement. The repression of blacks continued in prison – corrective labor was the most difficult for them, and portions of food were the smallest. In prison, Mandela received a Bachelor of Laws degree in absentia, studying at the University of London. In March 1982, Nelson was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison. In February 1985, then-president Peter Botha offered Mandela freedom in exchange for renouncing violence in the political struggle, but the Africanist leader rejected this offer, saying that he would not give up the fight in exchange for freedom.

In subsequent years, Mandela held several more meetings with government officials, but the negotiations did not lead to any results. In 1988, Mandela was transferred from Pollsmoor to Victor-Werster, where he spent the last years of his imprisonment.

Release and negotiations

In February 1990, the last white president of South Africa, de Klerk, signed a law legalizing the ANC, after which Mandela was released. This event was broadcast live around the world on February 11th. At the same time, Mandela addressed the people of South Africa, in which he stated that the armed struggle against apartheid would be fought to a victorious end if the government did not create a favorable climate for negotiations. Mandela soon became the leader of the ANC again. As a result of negotiations that lasted from 1990 to 1994, it was decided to hold the country’s first all-racial elections on April 27, 1994. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk received the Nobel Peace Prize for ending the apartheid regime in South Africa.

Armed struggle

Nelson Mandela was convinced that it was impossible to fight apartheid peacefully. Many years of growing repression have proved the failure of the nonviolent struggle against the regime. The Spear of the Nation, led by Mandela, began to pursue a policy of sabotage and provocation by the government and military forces of South Africa, aimed at combating the apartheid regime. Nelson was able to raise money for the organization from abroad by funding the military training of activists. From December 1961, explosions and other terrorist acts were to begin, planned, however, in such a way that the smallest possible number of civilians suffered as a result of them. ANC member Wolfie led most of the operations.

Mandela’s portrait is printed on money later, in the 1980s, Umkhonto we sizwe switched to more aggressive methods of guerrilla warfare, during which many civilians suffered. Mandela later admitted that the ANC, while fighting against apartheid, grossly violated human rights, and sharply criticized those who tried to hide these facts.

Until July 2008, Nelson Mandela was banned from entering the US because the former South African government classified the ANC as a terrorist organization.

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