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How is a quantum computer different from an ordinary computer?

How is a quantum computer different from an ordinary computer 1

(ORDO NEWS) — Your computer, like any laptop or smartphone, manages electricity in its silicon chips. Tiny “portions” of current flow in, or their flow is blocked, that this simple process is logical signals “true / false” or a double combination of one / zero.

However, quantum computers manipulate individual quantum elements , such as electrons or photons, called qubits. The strange quantum properties of these elementary particles give quantum computers incredible power that classical computing devices cannot even come close to.

Quantum Advantages

For example, because of their “spin” – the intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles – electrons can simultaneously move up or down, and photons can occupy a vertical and horizontal position.

This “quantum superposition” provides the qubits with the opportunity to be in two states at the same time, but this continues until they are influenced by some external factors that make it possible to concretize their state – any slight vibration or disturbance of the electromagnetic field can lead to collapse qubits.

In fact, elementary particles that do not have an observer can be in several places at the same time. For people who are accustomed to more specificity, it just takes out the brain! But the quantum world lives by its own rules, which you just need to accept.

To prevent this kind of quantum decoherence , engineers try to hold the fragile superposition states of the qubits as long as possible by placing them in vacuum chambers that are cooler than outer space. Qubits also rely on a strange property known as entanglement, where the property of one particle intertwines with another.

The complexities of the quantum world

If we take two entangled particles with a total spin of zero, and the state of one particle collapses so that its spin rotates clockwise, then the state of the other particle will be oriented counterclockwise – even if the two particles are at a huge distance from each other. …

All of this means that entangled qubits can be used to represent a huge number of possible number combinations at once. For example, the quantum processor Google Sycamore has 54 qubits that can simultaneously represent more than 10 quadrillion combinations.

This allowed Sycamore in 2019 to perform a series of complex calculations in just 200 seconds, whereas a regular computer would have taken over 10,000 years!

A quantum computer can perform computations beyond the reach of conventional computers, and this distinctive feature is called quantum supremacy. But due to extremely non-standard and difficult storage conditions (vacuum, low temperature, etc.), we still have a very long way to go before we have quantum processors with which our technology will be stuffed.


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