How and why does a solar eclipse occur?


Probably everyone in his life at least once heard or even saw such a thing as a solar eclipse. But did you ask yourself the question of where it comes from, what are the reasons for its occurrence, in general, what is this natural phenomenon?

The first such phenomena were noticed by mankind in ancient times. Previously, people at the sight of a solar eclipse were lost and felt wild horror before this mysterious phenomenon. As a rule, it was widely believed among ordinary people that at that moment some scary dragon was trying to destroy the sun and needed to be protected. Since the solar eclipse did not last long, the plan of the local residents always worked. They armed themselves with military weapons and went to the “war”, after it got light on the street, people returned to their homes calm and happy that they had driven away the evil spirits and saved the sun. It is also known that the first eclipse in human history was during the reign of Chung Kang, the fourth emperor from the Hen dynasty. The record in one of the books of ancient China – “Shujing” (“Book of History”) is confined to this period. The date of the solar eclipse was established only in the nineteenth century – October 22, 2137 BC. e.

By the way, each solar eclipse in one way or another is associated with historical events. So, it happened on August 3, 431 BC. e. during the Peloponnesian war in Greece. Establishing the exact date of the eclipse helped restore some moments of the war, including the date. The solar eclipse that happened during that period of time was not complete.

Today it is already precisely established that there is a solar eclipse. This is such a phenomenon of nature, the essence of which is that the moon overshadows the sun. The appearance of a solar eclipse is due to the fact that the Moon Earth and the Sun line up, and a new moon occurs.

So this astronomical phenomenon does not occur at every new moon. Depending on how much the moon covers the sun, a total or partial eclipse is emitted. Of course, the whole point is in the lunar shadow, which can be of different sizes, and a person who is on the surface of the Earth and falls into the shadow zone will be able to see a total solar eclipse.

The duration of such an astronomical phenomenon is only a few minutes, since the speed of movement of the shadow of the moon is 1 km / s, at least. The full cycle of the eclipse is 6 hours, and it starts in the western part of the earth at sunrise, and ends in the eastern part at sunset.

Naturally, with a partial eclipse you will see a completely different effect than from a total eclipse. Astronomers also emit a ring-shaped solar eclipse, the essence of which is that the Moon passes by the Sun and is smaller than the last in diameter, it turns out that during the eclipse you can see the Sun in a circle.

The frequency of a solar eclipse, as a rule, is 2-5 eclipses per year. Moreover, not all of these phenomena will be exactly a total solar eclipse. Astrologers predict that the longest total solar eclipse will occur on July 16, 2186, and its time will be – 7 minutes 29 seconds.

I would like to give a chronology of solar eclipses during the first 10 years of the 21st century. Of course, far from all cases of this phenomenon will be given here, but the most basic ones.

1. February 5, 2000 – a private solar eclipse.

June 2.21, 2001 – total solar eclipse. The best phenomenon was seen by those people who were at that moment in the equatorial part of the southern hemisphere. The width of the lunar shadow during the eclipse was 200 kilometers, and the length was 373,320 km. Time: 12:04:46;

3. June 10, 2002 – a ring-shaped solar eclipse. The best visibility was in the northern hemisphere. The duration was approximately 23 seconds. The width of the ray shadow was only 13 kilometers, and the length was 373,320 km. Event Time: 23:45:22.

4. May 31, 2003 – a private solar eclipse. Start time: 9:30:17. Place – Barnaul.

5. October 3, 2005 – an annular eclipse. The maximum phases could be observed in areas south of Europe (Portugal and Spain) and Africa.

6. On March 29, 2006, a total solar eclipse occurred, which was well observed in the western part of Russia.

7. March 19, 2007 – a private solar eclipse that could be seen in North America.

8. August 1, 2008 – a total solar eclipse, the active phase of which occurred in Novosibirsk. Start time is 17:44:02. Duration – 2 minutes 18 seconds.

9. July 22, 2009 – a total solar eclipse. It was clearly visible in many countries of the world – India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and others.

10. January 15, 2010 – a ring-shaped solar eclipse.

11. January 4, 2011 – a private solar eclipse. The place is the northern hemisphere. Beginning at 10:38. Humanity will be able to observe such a phenomenon only in 2015.


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