How an inertial navigation system works

(ORDO NEWS) — The system allows you to determine the position and orientation of objects in space.

In order for vehicles, including aircraft, surface and submarine ships, as well as spacecraft and drones, to understand their position and orientation in space, either satellite-dependent GPS navigators or data-free inertial navigation systems can be used ( INS).

The INS includes measuring equipment, including gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as a navigation computer processing information from them. Gyroscopes (mechanical or laser) set the angles of the object relative to the three main axes (pitch, yaw and roll), and accelerometers record linear acceleration.

If the INS is platform, then the measuring equipment is located on a gyro-stabilized platform that rotates independently of the INS, and in a strapdown INS, accelerometers and gyroscopes are rigidly connected to the device body and the platform functions are modeled by a mathematical computing system.

How an inertial navigation system works 2

How an inertial navigation system works

“The reference system every time tells the device where is the right, where is the left, where is the top, and where is the bottom, as well as the starting point of the movement. The reference system can be astronomical objects, the Earth or the horizon, it can also be arbitrary, but the reference system is mandatory for the INS.

Initial data for the calibration of the navigation system and the orientation of the inertial sensors are loaded into the block for entering the initial information of the INS. Then this data gets into the block of measurements, the computing block and the block of time which is synchronized with world time.

During the movement, the measurement unit registers changes in parameters, on the basis of which the computing unit determines the speed and coordinates of the object, after which they are transferred to the control system.


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