US, WASHINGTON (ORDO NEWS) — There is no man who would not admire the starry sky. And everyone probably thought about the question “did the universe have a beginning?”
D. Block, professor of astronomy says: “The idea that once the Universe did not exist was always perceived with hostility.” But in recent decades, enough evidence has appeared to believe that the universe had a beginning. Today, almost all scientists come to the conclusion that the Universe appeared due to the explosion, after which matter began to spread in different directions.
What led scientists to this conclusion?
Einstein’s theory that the Universe is either expanding or contracting was contrary to the generally accepted theory of the stationary Universe at that time.
Einstein introduced into his calculations a quantity which he called the “cosmological constant”. By this he tried to reconcile his theory with what was then considered scientific truth.
But after 4 years, Einstein accumulated enough evidence to recognize his amendment as “the greatest mistake.” Such evidence came when a 100-inch telescope was installed at an astronomical observatory in California. Observations of the Universe with this telescope proved that it is really expanding.
Before that, it was possible to consider only some stars of the Milky Way. Blurry spots known as nebulae were also observed, but they were mistaken for gassing. But with the help of this powerful telescope it turned out that this is not gaseous matter, but galaxies like ours. Today, there are up to 125 billion galaxies, each of which contains billions of stars.
It turned out further that these galaxies are moving away from us. And the farther the galaxies are, the faster they move away from us. The speed of removal of galaxies, scientists determine using a spectrograph. The light that comes from distant stars is transmitted through a prism, and is decomposed into different color components.
Light from a receding object, red. It is called redshift. And the light from the approaching objects is purple. Accordingly, it is called the violet shift. It was noticed that only with the exception of a few galaxies close to us, all the others have a redshift. So it turned out that the galaxy is expanding, and according to certain laws. The expansion rate is determined by the degree of redshift of the spectrum.
If we consider the reverse process of expansion of our Universe, as if all this was filmed, we can see how the Universe is not expanding, but contracting. And ultimately, she would return to the starting point. From this we can safely conclude that once upon a time the Universe had a beginning.
More recently, it was believed that the universe had no beginning. Freud Hoyle, for example, argued that if there was a “big bang”, he would have to leave his mark in the form of some kind of relict radiation. Later, scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the background radiation – the reflections of the flash after the Big Bang. It seemed that after this, the Big Bang theory was proved.
But after this discovery, new questions began to arise. If the Big Bang theory is correct, then why are there no weak inhomogeneous distributions of this radiation? In order for galaxies to form, colder and denser zones were needed where matter could contract. But experiments made by astronomers did not find such heterogeneities.
Later, when the satellite was launched, the discoveries made by him became historical. It turned out that the small swell was the heterogeneity that remained in space after the Big Bang.
The fact that the universe had a beginning speaks in favor of the fact that it was created. The scientist Penzias, who participated in the discovery of background radiation, concludes that these discoveries lead to a unique conclusion: the Universe was created from nothing. And George Smoot, who leads the group, said: “We found evidence of the emergence of the universe.” He also added that to witness such discoveries is the same as seeing God.
And yet, not all scientists recognize that the universe had a beginning, or a moment of creation. They are struggling to find alternative theories for the appearance of the universe.
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